Anyone who wants to lower their risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
Sodium is found in salt, which is added to food. In general, most people consume much more sodium than they need. Diets high in sodium can increase blood pressure and lead to water retention. On a heart-healthy diet, you should consume no more than 2,400 milligrams (mg) of sodium per day—about the amount in one teaspoon of table salt. The foods highest in sodium include salt processed foods, convenience/junk foods, and preserved foods. Table salt contains nearly 50% sodium.
Cholesterol is a fat-like, waxy substance in your blood. Our bodies make some cholesterol. It is also found in animal products, with the highest amounts in fatty meat, egg yolks, whole milk, cheese, shellfish, and organ meats.
It is normal and important to have some cholesterol in your bloodstream. However, too much cholesterol can cause plaque to build up within your arteries, which can eventually lead to a heart attack or stroke.
The 2 types of cholesterol that are most commonly referred to are:
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
—Also known as bad cholesterol, this is the cholesterol that tends to build up along your arteries. Bad cholesterol levels are increased by eating fats that are saturated or hydrogenated (trans).
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol
—Also known as good cholesterol, this type of cholesterol actually carries cholesterol away from your arteries and may, therefore, help lower your risk of having a heart attack. You can raise this good cholesterol by including olive oil, canola oil, avocados, or nuts in your diet. Exercise has been shown to raise HDL levels, too.
Eating a heart healthy diet can help lower LDL and raise HDL cholesterol levels.
Fats are calorie dense, therefore they pack a lot of calories into a small amount of food. Even though fats should be limited due to their high calorie content, not all fats are bad. In fact, some fats are quite healthful. Fat can be broken down into 4 main types.
The fats that are good for you include:
—found in oils such as olive and canola, avocados, and nuts and natural nut butters; can decrease total cholesterol levels, while keeping levels of HDL cholesterol high
—found in oils such as safflower, sunflower, soybean, corn, and sesame; can decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol
Omega-3 fatty acids
—a subcategory of polyunsaturated fats, such as those found in fatty fish like salmon, trout, tuna, mackerel, herring, and sardines; these fats can decrease risk of arrhythmias, decrease triglyceride levels, and slightly lower blood pressure
The fats that you want to limit are:
—found in animal products, many fast foods, and a few vegetables; increases total blood cholesterol, including LDL levels
that are saturated—butter, lard, whole-milk dairy products, meat fat, and poultry skin
that are saturated—palm oil, coconut oil, cocoa butter
are found in margarine and vegetable shortening, most shelf-stable snack foods, and fried foods. They increase LDL and decrease HDL.
This is a fat that has no healthful qualities. You should try to eliminate trans fats from your diet completely.
It is generally recommended that you limit your total fat for the day to less than 25%-35% of your total calories. If you follow an 1,800-calorie heart healthy diet, for example, this would mean 60 grams of fat or less per day.
Saturated fat and trans fat in your diet raises your blood cholesterol the most, much more than dietary cholesterol does. For this reason, on a heart-healthy diet, less than 7% of your calories should come from saturated fat and less than 1% from
fat. On an 1,800-calorie diet, this translates into less than 14 grams of saturated fat per day, leaving 46 grams of fat to come from mono- and polyunsaturated fats.
Make whole grains, fruits, and vegetables the base of your diet.
Choose heart-healthy fats such as canola, olive, and flaxseed oil, and foods high in heart-healthy fats, such as nuts, seeds, soybeans, tofu, and fish.
Eat fish at least twice per week. The fish highest in omega-3 fatty acids and lowest in mercury include salmon, herring, mackerel, sardines, and canned chunk light tuna. If you eat fish less than twice per week or have high triglycerides, talk to your doctor about taking fish oil supplements.
Read food labels:
For products low in fat and cholesterol, look for
fat free, low-fat, cholesterol free, saturated fat free, and trans fat free—Also scan the Nutrition Facts Label, which lists saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol amounts.
For products low in sodium, look for
sodium free, very low sodium, low sodium, no added salt, and unsalted
Skip the salt when cooking or at the table; if food needs more flavor, get creative and try out different herbs and spices. Garlic and onion also add substantial flavor to foods.
Trim any visible fat off meat and poultry before cooking, and drain the fat off after browning.
Use cooking methods that require little or no added fat, such as grilling, boiling, baking, poaching, broiling, roasting, steaming, stir-frying, and sautéing.
Avoid fast food and convenience food. They tend to be high in saturated and trans fat and have a lot of added salt.
Talk to a registered dietitian for individualized diet advice.
Dietary guidelines for Americans 2010. US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: ...(Click grey area to select URL) Accessed November 12, 2014.
Dietary interventions for cardiovascular disease prevention. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: ...(Click grey area to select URL) Updated October 20, 2014. Accessed November 12, 2014.
Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129(25 Suppl 2):S76-S99.
Goff DC Jr. Lloyd-Jones DM, Bennett G, et al. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the assessment of cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;63(25 pt B):2935-2959.
What your cholesterol levels mean. American Heart Association website. Available at: ...(Click grey area to select URL) Updated August 15, 2014. Accessed November 12, 2014.
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