Intraventricular Hemorrhage of Infancy
(IVH; Subependymal Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage; Early-onset Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage; EGMH; Periventricular-Intraventricular Hemorrhage; PIVH)
Pronounced: In-tra-ven-tric-ooh-lar Hem-or-age of In-fan-see
by Alexandra Howson, PhD
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is bleeding into the spaces of a baby’s brain. IVH is most common in premature babies.
IVH may cause damage to brain tissue and lead to long-term development problems.
IVH is caused by the rupture of immature or fragile blood vessels in the brain. It is not clear why this happens, but changes in blood pressure may play a role.
Risk Factors TOP
Factors that increase your baby’s chance of developing IVH include:
It often occurs in the first 48 hours after birth. In many cases, there are no visible signs of IVH. Symptoms that may occur include:
A physical exam will be done. The doctor will look for any signs of a brain injury.
An ultrasound will be used to make images of the brain structures, blood vessels, and blood flow in the brain.
Other tests, like blood tests, may be done to look for anemia and causes of the bleeding.
In most cases, the bleeding gradually stops. Treatment options include:
Certain procedures or surgery may need to be done to relieve pressure in the brain:
If you are at risk of having a premature baby, you may be given medication to decrease the chance of IVH.
American Academy of Neurology
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
Caring for Kids—Canadian Pediatric Society
Ballabh P. Intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants: mechanism of disease. Pediatr Res. 2010;67(1):1-8.
Intraventricular hemorrhage. Boston Children's Hospital website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed September 15, 2015.
Intraventricular hemorrhage of infancy. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.... Updated April 3, 2014. Accessed September 15, 2015.
Fowlie PW, Davis PG, McGuire W. Prophylactic intravenous indomethacin for preventing mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev 2010;7:CD000174.
Last reviewed September 2016 by Kari Kassir, MD
Last Updated: 9/30/2013
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