(Biopsy, Kidney; Renal Biopsy; Biopsy, Renal)
by Patricia Griffin Kellicker, BSN
A kidney biopsy is the removal of a small piece of kidney tissue or cells. A pathologist (a doctor who specializes in tissue diagnosis) uses a microscope to look at the tissue for abnormalities.
Reasons for Procedure
A kidney biopsy is done to diagnose a disease or medical condition.
A kidney biopsy may be done if you have:
Once the tissue is examined, your doctor can make a diagnosis and provide treatment.
If you had a kidney transplant, it may also be done to see if your new kidney is working properly.
Possible Complications TOP
Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely free of risk. If you have a kidney biopsy, your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include:
Factors that may increase the risk of complications include:
Be sure to discuss these risks with your doctor before the biopsy.
What to Expect TOP
Prior to Procedure
You will receive a local anesthetic to numb your skin. You may also receive a light sedative.
Description of Procedure
This procedure is usually done in an outpatient setting with no need for an overnight stay. Your skin will be cleaned; this may be on your back or abdomen. The doctor will then inject a local anesthetic into the area where the biopsy will be taken. Next, your kidney will be located using either ultrasound or x-ray. Then, long needles will be inserted to collect tissue samples. A special instrument may be used to insert the needles. During the collection, you may be asked to hold your breath. Once the samples are collected, a bandage will be placed on your skin.
How Long Will It Take?
About an hour
How Much Will It Hurt?
The local anesthetic will block the pain during the biopsy. Afterwards, you may feel sore where the biopsy was taken. Ask your doctor which pain reliever is right for you.
At the Care Center
You will be monitored for a few hours after your biopsy. You will be asked to remain lying down to reduce the chance of bleeding. Your pulse and blood pressure will be monitored. Your biopsy samples will be sent to the laboratory for testing. Once you are feeling well and the doctor feels it is safe, you will be sent home.
When you return home, do the following to help ensure a smooth recovery:
Call Your Doctor TOP
After arriving home, contact your doctor if any of the following occurs:
In case of an emergency, call for medical help right away.
National Kidney Foundation
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse
The Kidney Foundation of Canada
How is kidney cancer diagnosed? American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.... . Accessed September 22, 2009.
Israel GM, Francis IR, Baumgarten DA, et al; Expert Panel on Urologic Imaging. Indeterminate renal mass. American College of Radiology (ACR); 2007.
Kidney biopsy. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/biopsy/ . Accessed September 22, 2009.
Scholten A. Biopsy. EBSCO Health Library. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/ . Last reviewed December 2008. Last updated July 24, 2009. Accessed September 22, 2009.
6/3/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/ : Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2011;124(2):144-154.e8.
Last reviewed November 2012 by Adrienne Carmack, MD
Last Updated: 11/26/2012