Guillain-Barré Syndrome

(Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy; Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy; Acute Idiopathic Polyneuritis; Acute Inflammatory Polyneuropathy; Acute Autoimmune Neuropathy; Idiopathic Polyneuritis; AIDP)

Pronounced: gee-yan bah-ray sin-droam

Definition

Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare problem that causes the immune system to attack the nerves. This results in muscle weakness.

Nervous System

CNS and PNS
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes

The exact cause is not known. In some people, it is triggered by a recent infection.

Risk Factors

Guillain-Barré syndrome is more common in men. The risk gets higher with age. Other things that may raise the risk are:

  • Recent infection
  • Stress-related disorder
  • Recent vaccination (rare)

Symptoms

Problems may happen over hours, days, or weeks. It will get worse over time. Problems may be:

  • Weakness and tingling in the legs, arms, and face
  • Pain in the legs or back
  • Problems walking or climbing stairs
  • Problems breathing
  • Eyesight problems
  • Problems swallowing, speaking, or chewing
  • Problems urinating

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. This is often enough to make the diagnosis. These tests may be done to support it:

Treatment

The goal is to manage symptoms and help speed healing. Hospital care will be needed to watch for things like breathing and heart problems. Most people get better, but others may have lasting problems.

Treatment choices are:

IV Immunoglobulin Therapy (IVIG)

Immunoglobulins are proteins in the blood that fight infections. IVIG uses an IV to give a person proteins donated from a healthy person.

Plasmapheresis

Plasmapheresis removes blood from the body and passes it through a machine that separates blood cells. The cells are then returned to the body with new plasma. This may help a person get better more quickly.

Therapy

Physical and occupational therapy may be needed. It can help a person with strength and motion. It can also help a person learn how to do daily tasks again.

Prevention

There are no guidelines to lower the risk of this health problem.

RESOURCES:

Guillain-Barré Syndrome Foundation International
http://www.gbs-cidp.org/
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
http://www.ninds.nih.gov/

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Canadian Institute for Health Information
http://www.cihi.ca

References:

Donofrio PD. Guillain-Barré Syndrome. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2017 Oct;23(5, Peripheral Nerve and Motor Neuron Disorders):1295-1309.
Guillain-Barre syndrome. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/campylobacter/guillain-barre.html. Updated December 20, 2019. Accessed April 13, 2020.
Guillain-Barre syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/guillain-barre-syndrome . Updated August 2, 2019. Accessed April 13, 2020.
Guillain-Barre syndrome fact sheet. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Guillain-Barr%C3%A9-Syndrome-Information-Page. Updated March 27, 2019. Accessed April 13, 2020.
Last reviewed February 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Rimas Lukas, MD
Last Updated: 4/13/2020

EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at healthlibrarysupport@ebsco.com. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.