Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Teens and Adults
(Lay Rescuer CPR for Teens and Adults)
by Diana Kohnle
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a series of steps to help a person who is not responding and has stopped breathing. CPR helps deliver oxygen rich blood to the body tissue when the body is not able to do this on its own.
Reasons for Procedure TOP
CPR is given to a person who is not responding and has stopped breathing. Reasons for this may include:
The outcome will depend on the initial cause and how soon effective CPR was started. Many people are unable to regain a normal heartbeat after it has stopped.
Possible Complications TOP
The goal of the CPR is to provide blood flow to the heart, brain, and other vital organs until proper medical care can be given. The person is likely to die if CPR is not started immediately. Complications may include fracture of the ribs, broken teeth, infections, and puncture of the lung.
People with weakened bones have a higher risk of bone fractures from CPR. However, there is a greater risk of death if CPR is delayed or not done correctly.
What to Do TOP
Prior to Procedure
When you see someone collapse or find someone unconscious, immediately check to see if the person is responsive. Tap the victim and ask: “Are you OK?” If the victim is unresponsive, follow these steps.
How Long Will It Take?
The length of time for CPR depends on the causes and response time of the emergency medical team.
Will It Hurt the Victim? TOP
The person is unconscious when CPR is given. The procedure does not hurt. Some people may complain of soreness in the chest after they are conscious.
Post-procedure Care TOP
The person should be taken to the hospital. They should go even if they has recovered. Emergency personnel will take over care when they arrive.
Call for Help TOP
If a teen or adult is unresponsive, call for emergency medical services right away. If someone is with you, have that person call for emergency medical services right away while you begin CPR.
Public Health Agency of Canada
2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic life support. Pediatrics. 2006;117(5):e989-e1004.
Bardy, G.H. A critic's assessment of our approach to cardiac arrest. New Engl J of Med. 2011;364(4):374-375.
Bush CM, Jones JS, et al. Pediatric injuries from cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ann Emerg Med. 1996;28(1):40-44.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Am Fam Physician . 2000;62(7):1564.
Heartsaver First Aid with CPR and AED. American Heart Association website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed November 20, 2012.
Neumar RW, Nolan JP, et al. Post-cardiac arrest syndrome: epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognostication. A consensus statement from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. Circulation. 2008;118(23):2452-2483.
Part 5: Adult basic life support: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2010;122(18 Suppl 3):S685-S705.
Topjian AA, Berg RA, et al. Pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation: advances in science, techniques, and outcomes. Pediatrics. 2008;122(5):1086-1098.
Last reviewed December 2014 by Marcin Chwistek, MD
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