Vaginal Prolapse

(Pelvic Floor Relaxation)

Definition

Vaginal prolapse is the inward and downward bulging of the vaginal walls. The severity of vaginal prolapse may be defined as:

  • First degree—collapse into the upper part of the vagina
  • Second degree—collapse further into the vaginal canal, down to the level of the vaginal opening
  • Third degree—collapse that extends beyond the opening

Causes    TOP

Vaginal prolapse is caused by weakened support structures in the pelvic region. The lack of support causes the walls of the vagina to weaken, sag, and collapse.

Pelvic Floor Muscles and Organs

Pelvic floor muscels
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Risk Factors    TOP

Your risk of vaginal prolapse increases with age. Other factors include:

Symptoms    TOP

Symptoms may include:

  • Pelvic pressure
  • A feeling of vaginal fullness or heaviness
  • A feeling of pulling in the pelvis
  • Vaginal discomfort
  • Urinary urgency and frequency
  • Urination when laughing, sneezing, coughing, or exercising
  • Constipation
  • Difficult or painful intercourse
  • Low backache that is relieved with lying down

Diagnosis    TOP

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Vaginal prolapse that has no symptoms may be diagnosed during routine examinations. You may be referred to a gynecologist, who will do a pelvic exam.

Treatment    TOP

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. First- or second-degree prolapse without symptoms may not require treatment. Treatment options include:

Kegel Exercises

Kegel exercises involve tensing the muscles around the vagina and anus, holding for several seconds, then releasing. The repetition of this exercise will help to tone pelvic muscles. You may be asked to do this up to 100 times a day.

Medications

Estrogen therapy may be advised. This may help prevent further weakness of the pelvic floor. Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits associated with hormone replacement therapy.

Pessary Insertion    TOP

A pessary may be inserted into the upper portion of the vagina. A pessary is a rubbery, doughnut-shaped device. It helps to prop up the uterus and bladder. Pessary placement is more often used in older women.

Surgery    TOP

Vaginal prolapse that is severe or associated with lasting symptoms may require surgery. Surgery may involve repairing the pelvic floor structure or, in some cases, suturing the vagina.

Prevention    TOP

To help reduce your chances of vaginal prolapse:

  • Do Kegel exercises.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • To avoid constipation, eat plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Drink plenty of fluids throughout the day.
  • If you smoke, talk to your doctor about ways to quit. Smoking may cause chronic coughing and weakening of connective tissues.
  • Limit heavy lifting.

RESOURCES:

Office on Women's Health
https://www.womenshealth.gov
The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
https://www.acog.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Canadian Women's Health Network
http://www.cwhn.ca
Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
https://sogc.org

References:

Pelvic organ prolapse. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.... Updated March 23, 2015. Accessed April 17, 2018.
Pelvic organ prolapse. International Urogynecological Association website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed April 17, 2018.
Uterine and vaginal prolapse. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/pelvic-relaxation-syndromes/uterine-and-vaginal-prolapse. Updated February 2017. Accessed April 17, 2018.
Vaginal pessary. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: https://familydoctor.org/vaginal-pessary. Updated October 24, 2017. Accessed April 17, 2018.
10/21/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://www.dyname...: Shariati A, Maceda JS, Hale DS. High-fiber diet for treatment of constipation in women with pelvic floor disorders. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;111(4):908-913.
5/11/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed...: Fritel X, Varnoux N, Zins M, Breart G, Ringa V. Symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse at midlife, quality of life, and risk factors. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113(3):609-616.
Last reviewed March 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Marcie L. Sidman, MD
Last Updated: 4/17/2018

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