Respiratory Syncytial Virus

(RSV)

Pronounced: RES-pi-ra-to-re sin-SISH-al VI-rus

Definition

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of many lung and airway infections. Examples of infections include:

RSV can infect people of all ages. Infants, young children, and older people tend to have more serious infections. In severe cases, RSV infections can lead to death.

Respiratory System Anatomy of an Infant

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Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes    TOP

RSV is spreads easily through fluids of the mouth and nose. The virus can live on surfaces and objects for hours. People touch the surface with the virus then touch their mouth, nose, or eyes. This is the easiest way for the virus to spread. It can also be spread by inhaling droplets from a sneeze or cough. Someone with the virus may be able to pass it on for 3-8 days.

Risk Factors    TOP

RSV is more common in infants and young children. Those under 2 years old have highest risk. Other factors that may increase your chance of RSV include:

  • Exposure to a person infected with the virus or an object contaminated with the virus
  • Premature birth of an infant
  • Problems with the heart, lungs, or immune system
  • Current or recent use of chemotherapy
  • Previous organ or bone marrow transplant
  • Problems associated with muscle weakness

Symptoms    TOP

The symptoms can vary with age. You may also react different if you have been infected with RSV before. Very young children, elderly people, and people with chronic diseases are more likely to have severe symptoms.

In children younger than 3 years old, symptoms may include:

  • Stuffy or runny nose
  • High fever
  • Severe cough
  • Wheezing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Very fast rate of breathing
  • Bluish color of the lips or fingernails
  • Abnormal drowsiness or irritability
  • Lack of appetite
  • Discharge from the eyes

In children older than 3 years old, and healthy adults, symptoms commonly include:

  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Sore throat
  • Mild cough
  • Headache
  • Low-grade fever
  • Discharge from the eyes

Diagnosis    TOP

You will be asked about any symptoms and past health. A physical exam will be done. The doctor will suspect a virus based on your symptoms.

There are tests to diagnose RSV. However, they are not usually needed. The result will not affect treatment plan.

Treatment    TOP

Antibiotics are not helpful because RSV is caused by a virus.

Mild Infections

Mild infections such as colds will pass on their own. Some steps will help to ease symptoms and decrease discomfort:

  • Drink plenty of liquids. Water and fruit juice are good choices. Fluids will help to keep nasal fluid thin and easy to clear.
  • Use a cool-mist vaporizer to humidify the air. It may help reduce coughing and soothe irritated airways.
  • Use salt water nose drops to loosen mucus in the nose.
  • Use non-aspirin fever medication, such as acetaminophen, to reduce fever.

Note : Aspirin can cause serious complications in some children with certain infections. It is best to avoid aspirin or aspirin products for children with infections.

Severe Infections

Severe infections may need care in a hospital. A medical team can help to keep airways open. Treatment may include:

  • Humidified air
  • Oxygen through a tube or mask
  • Medicine to improve breathing
  • Mechanical ventilation—if breathing is not possible without help

Prevention    TOP

To help reduce your chance of RSV:

  • Practice healthy habits, such as:
    • Wash your hands often. This is very important after being with someone who is sick.
    • Avoid touching your face and rubbing your eyes.
    • Do not share items such as cups, glasses, silverware, or towels with people who may have an infection.
    • Avoid smoke exposure.
  • Medicine may be given to babies with a high risk of serious illness from RSV. It may help to prevent an infection. The shot is given monthly through the fall and winter in children under 2 years old.

RESOURCES:

American Lung Association
http://www.lung.org
Kids Health—Nemours Foundation
http://www.kidshealth.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children
http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca

References:

Bronchiolitis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115760/Bronchiolitis. Updated October 26, 2018. Accessed December 12, 2018.
Respiratory syncytial virus. American Lung Association website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed December 12, 2018.
Respiratory syncytial virus. Kids Health—Nemours Foundation website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated September 2015. Accessed December 12, 2018.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated June 26, 2018. Accessed December 12, 2018.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in adults. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.... Updated September 22, 2018. Accessed December 12, 2018.
1/15/2010 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed...: Kabir AR, Mollah AH, Anwar KS, Rahman AK, Amin R, Rahman ME. Management of bronchiolitis without antibiotics: a multicentre randomized control trial in Bangladesh. Acta Paediatr. 2009;98:1593-1599.
Last reviewed September 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Kari Kassir, MD
Last Updated: 12/12/2018

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