(Spleen Removal; Removal, Spleen)
by Editorial Staff and Contributors
Splenectomy is the surgical removal of the spleen. The spleen is an organ in the upper left part of the abdomen. It is beneath the ribs and behind the stomach. The spleen filters blood to remove bacteria, parasites, and other organisms that can cause infection. It removes old and damaged blood cells. It can also produce red blood cells and certain types of white blood cells.
Reasons for Procedure TOP
You may need to be treated by having a splenectomy if you have:
Possible Complications TOP
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review potential problems, like:
Factors that may increase the risk of complications include:
What to Expect TOP
Prior to Procedure
Your doctor may do the following:
Imaging studies to look at the abdomen and spleen may include:
Without your spleen, you will be more susceptible to certain infections. You may get vaccines against infections, which may include:
Talk to your doctor about your medications. You may be asked to stop taking some medications up to one week before the procedure, like:
General anesthesia will be used. You will be asleep.
Description of Procedure TOP
The spleen can be removed through an open incision or through laparoscopic surgery.
An incision will be made in the abdomen over the spleen. The skin and muscles will be pulled back. The blood vessels to and around the spleen will be tied off. This will free the organ. Moist sponges may be placed in the abdomen. The sponges will absorb some of the blood and fluid. The spleen will be removed. If needed, further surgery may be done at this time to repair other organs. The sponges will then be removed.
The wound will be cleaned. The muscles and skin will be closed with stitches or staples. A gauze dressing will be placed over the wound.
A small incision will be made in the abdomen. A laparoscope will be inserted through the incision. The laparoscope is a thin, lighted tube with a small camera on the end. It allows the doctor to see inside your body. Carbon dioxide gas will be passed into the abdomen. This inflates the abdomen and creates more room to work.
Two or three more small incisions will be made in the abdomen. Special tools will be inserted through these incisions. Blood vessels to the spleen will be cut and tied off. The spleen will then be rotated and removed. If the spleen has been ruptured, the abdomen is checked for any other injured organs or blood vessels. If needed, further surgery may be done at this time. The incisions will be closed with stitches and covered with surgical tape.
Immediately After Procedure TOP
The removed spleen is sent to the lab for testing.
You will be taken to a recovery room and monitored. You may require a blood transfusion if you lost a lot of blood in the surgery.
How Long Will It Take? TOP
About 45-60 minutes
Will It Hurt? TOP
Anesthesia prevents pain during the procedure. Pain and discomfort after the procedure can be managed with medications.
Average Hospital Stay TOP
The usual length of stay is 2-4 days. Your doctor may choose to keep you longer if complications arise.
Post-procedure Care TOP
It is important to follow your doctor's instructions for postoperative care:
Recovery time may vary based on the extent of your injuries and any underlying disease or condition. On average, allow about 4-6 weeks for complete healing.
Always let your doctor(s) know that you do not have a spleen. Carry a national splenectomy card, which most hospital hematology departments can give you. When traveling, take special precautions against malaria and other infections.
Call Your Doctor TOP
After you leave the hospital, contact your doctor if any of the following occur:
If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.
American Academy of Family Physicians
National Institutes of Health
Canadian Family Physician
Canadian Paediatric Society
Cadili A, de Gara C. Complications of splenectomy. Am J Med. 2008;121(5):371-375.
Hypersplenism. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us . Updated June 20, 2011. Accessed September 19, 2013.
Sabiston DC Jr. Textbook of Surgery . 17th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co.; 2004.
Splenectomy. The Cleveland Clinic website. Available at: http://my.clevelan... . Accessed September 19, 2013.
10/9/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us : Renzulli P, Hostettler A, Schoepfer AM, Gloor B, Candinas D. Systematic review of atraumatic splenic rupture. Br J Surg. 2009;96:1114-1121.
Last reviewed February 2014 by Michael Woods, MD
Last Updated: 9/30/2013