Retinal Detachment Repair
by Editorial Staff and Contributors
This procedure is done to repair a detached retina in the eye. The retina is a thin sheet, made of light-sensitive nerve tissue and blood vessels that lines the back of the eye. The sensory layer of the retina receives images and sends them to the brain. This layer can be pulled away (detached) from its normal position. This will result in a loss of vision. The retina often detaches from the back of the eye in a manner similar to wallpaper peeling off a wall. The detachment is usually preceded by a hole or tears in the retina.
Reasons for Procedure TOP
This procedure is done to place the retina back into its proper position. It is used to try to restore vision.
If your vision was good before the detachment, a successful operation usually restores vision to good levels. If vision was poor before the detachment, final visual return may be slow and remain incomplete after surgery. A peripheral retinal detachment will likely heal quicker than one that involves the macula (central retina) or a total detachment.
The longer the retina has been detached, the less likely it is that vision will be restored.
Possible Complications TOP
Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely free of risk. If you are planning to have this repair, your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include:
Factors that may increase the risk of complications include:
What to Expect TOP
Prior to Procedure
You will have a comprehensive eye exam, likely including some or all of the following:
You may also have a general medical exam prior to your surgery.
Leading up to your procedure:
Talk to your doctor about your medications. You may be asked to stop taking some medications up to one week before the procedure, like:
You may have either a local or general anesthetic. Local anesthesia will be injected and numb the area. General anesthesia will make you sleep. The type of anesthesia used will depend on the type of procedure, your age, and other factors.
Description of Procedure TOP
There are several surgical options to repair retinal detachment. The most common are:
A flexible silicone band will be permanently stitched to the outside surface of the back of the eye. This is done underneath the skin of the eye. You would never see the band. This band acts like a belt. It buckles the area of the detachment or retinal tear to the wall of the eye. This procedure has a high success rate in re-attaching the retina. Local or general anesthesia is used.
A gas bubble will be injected into the cavity of the eye. The pressure will force the retina back into position. You will often need to lie in a special position to keep the gas bubble in place. The retina will usually re-attach within several days. A laser (heat) or cryotherapy (cold) will help seal the retina back into place.
This method generally has a high success rate. It is not suitable for all types of detachment. Local anesthesia is sometimes used. The main benefit of this procedure is that it can be done in the office with anesthetic eye drops.
Vitrectomy (Removal of the Vitreous Humor)
This method may be needed for more complicated retinal detachments. It may also be used if the procedures described above are not successful. The fluid in the eye as well as any scar tissue will be removed. The fluid will then be replaced with a gas bubble or specialized oil known as silicone oil. The bubble or oil will help push the retina back against the eye wall. Retinal breaks will then be sealed with a laser or cryotherapy. A scleral buckle procedure is often done at the same time. Local or general anesthesia is used.
How Long Will It Take? TOP
Between 1-4 hours
How Much Will It Hurt? TOP
Anesthesia prevents pain during the procedure. During recovery, you may experience some pain or nausea. Your doctor can give you medication to manage any pain.
Average Hospital Stay TOP
You can usually go home the same day as the surgery.
Post-procedure Care TOP
Your eye will be covered with a bandage and metal shield. When you return home, do the following to help ensure a smooth recovery:
The final visual result may not be known for 1-2 years after surgery.
Call Your Doctor TOP
After you leave the hospital, contact your doctor if any of the following occurs:
In case of an emergency, call for medical help right away.
American Academy of Ophthalmology
American Association of Eye and Ear Hospitals
Canadian Association of Optometrists
Ottawa Hospital Eye Institute
Charles Retina Institute website. Available at:
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Digital Journal of Ophthalmology. Harvard University.
Kanski JJ. Clinical Ophthalmology: A Systemic Approach. 4th ed. Butterworth Heinemann; 1999.
The Schepens Eye Research Institute website. Available at:
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Last reviewed June 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Last Updated: 06/30/2013