by Jennifer Hellwig, MS, RD
Hives are small, itchy, red swollen areas on the skin. The swelling occurs singularly or in clusters. Hives tend to fade after a few hours, but new ones can appear. Most cases go away within a few days. However, some last a few weeks or longer.
Hives are often caused when the body releases a chemical called histamine. Histamine is released during an allergic reaction. Many people, though, get hives without being exposed to something they are allergic to.
While the cause is unknown in some cases, these factors may cause hives:
Risk Factors TOP
Factors that may increase your chances of hives include:
Symptoms of hives can vary from mild-to-severe:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You may need to see a doctor who specializes in skin disorders (dermatologist) or allergies (allergist).
Your bodily fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with x-rays.
The best way to treat hives is to find and then avoid the cause.
If the cause cannot be found, there are medications to reduce symptoms or treat hives:
The best way to prevent hives is to avoid the allergen that caused you to get hives in the past.
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
American Academy of Dermatology
Allergy Asthma Information Association
Calgary Allergy Network
Acute urticaria. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T916900/Acute-urticaria . Updated July 27, 2017. Accessed October 2, 2017.
Allergic skin conditions. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology website. Available at:
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Updated October 2, 2017.
Chronic urticaria. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115276/Chronic-urticaria . Updated July 27, 2017. Accessed October 2, 2017.
Dibbern DA Jr. Urticaria: selected highlights and recent advances. Med Clin North Am. 2006;90(1):187-209.
Gambichler T, Breuckmann F, Boms S, Altmeyer P, Kreuter A. Narrowband UVB phototherapy in skin conditions beyond psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;52(4):660-670.
Guldbakke KK, Khachemoune A. Etiology, classification, and treatment of urticaria. Cutis. 2007;79(1):41-49.
Hives. American Academy of Dermatology website. Available at: https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/itchy-skin/hives. Accessed October 2, 2017.
Kaplan Allen P. Chronic urticaria: pathogenesis and treatment. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;114(3): 465-474.
Last reviewed September 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Marcin Chwistek, MD
Last Updated: 9/30/2014
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