by Debra Wood, RN
Peripheral neuropathy is damage to the peripheral nerves. These are the nerves that connect your spinal cord to the rest of your body.
Many health conditions can cause peripheral neuropathy. The damage may the result of:
Health conditions that can damage peripheral nerves include:
Risk Factors TOP
Having certain health conditions may increase your chance of getting peripheral neuropathy.
Damage to the peripheral nerves often results in sensory and motor symptoms in the:
Other parts of the body can also be affected. Symptoms depend on which nerves are involved. They can range from mild to severe and may seem worse at night. Sensations and pain may occur in the upper or lower limbs and move toward the trunk, such as from the feet to the calves.
Peripheral neuropathy may cause:
If untreated, peripheral neuropathy can lead to:
If you have motor or sensory neuropathy, you may also have autonomic neuropathy. This is associated with symptoms, such as:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. It may include examining:
Additional tests may also include:
Tests of your bodily fluids and tissues:
Evaluation of your nerves and muscles:
Imaging tests to evaluate nerves and other structures:
Your doctor may need to evaluate other family members for this condition.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options may include:
Treatment for the Underlying Illness or Exposure
Treating the underlying illness can decrease symptoms or make them go away. For instance, if it is caused by diabetes, controlling blood sugar levels may help. In some cases, neuropathy caused by medications or toxins is completely reversed when these substances are stopped or avoided. Correction of vitamin B12 deficiency often improves symptoms.
Certain exercises may help stretch shortened or contracted muscles and increase joint flexibility. In long-standing cases, splinting the joint may be required to protect and rest it, while maintaining proper alignment.
Orthotics, such as supports and braces, may help with:
Maintaining physical activity is also important.
Prescription and over-the-counter pain medications are often used to ease discomfort. Botulinum toxin A injections may also be given to help reduce pain.
Medications used to treat depression and prevent convulsions can relieve neuropathy symptoms.
For severe and potentially life-threatening cases, such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, treatment includes:
Other Therapies TOP
These therapies are aimed at reducing symptoms:
To help reduce your chance of peripheral neuropathy:
American Chronic Pain Association
The Neuropathy Association
Canadian Diabetes Association
Baron R, Binder A, Wasner G. Neuropathic pain: diagnosis, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9(8):807-819.
Diabetic neuropathies: The nerve damage of diabetes. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated November 2013. Accessed October 2, 2017.
Karlsson P, Møller AT, Jensen TS, Nyengaard JR. Epidermal nerve fiber length density estimation using global spatial sampling in healthy subjects and neuropathy patients. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2013;72(3):186-193.
Peripheral neuropathy. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.... Updated April 14, 2017. Accessed October 2, 2017.
10/5/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed...: Feng Y, Schlösser FJ, Sumpio BE. The Semmes Weinstein monofilament examination as a screening tool for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. J Vasc Surg. 2009;50(3):675-682.
12/1/2016 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed...: Attal N, de Andrade DC, et al. Safety and efficacy of repeated injections of botulinum toxin A in peripheral neuropathic pain (BOTNEP): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2016 May;15(6):555-565.
Last reviewed September 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Rimas Lukas, MD
Last Updated: 5/30/2014
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