(Cervical Sprain and Neck Muscle Strain)
by Rosalyn Carson-DeWitt, MD
Whiplash is a soft tissue neck injury that can include:
Whiplash can occur with any sudden, violent, backward jerk of the head or neck.
Risk Factors TOP
Factors that may increase your chance of whiplash include:
Symptoms often develop in the hours after the injury although they can also develop in the days after the injury.
Symptoms may include:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Most whiplash injuries do not show up on imaging tests. Your doctor may order some tests to make sure that no other injuries have occurred.
Neck images may be taken to look for further damage. Images may be taken with:
An electromyogram may also be done to test for nerve damage.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options may include:
There are no current guidelines for preventing whiplash. It often occurs due to an unexpected event.
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Canadian Orthopaedic Association
Cervical spine injury. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.... Updated January 8, 2015. Accessed January 22, 2015.
Conlin A, Bhogal S, et al. Treatment of whiplash-associated disorders--part I: Non-invasive interventions. Pain Research & Management. 10(1):21-32, 2005.
Conlin A, Bhogal S, et al. Treatment of whiplash-associated disorders--part II: Medical and surgical interventions. Pain Research & Management. 10(1):33-40, 2005.
Curatolo M, Arendt-Nielsen L, et al. Evidence, mechanisms, and clinical implications of central hypersensitivity in chronic pain after whiplash injury. Clinical Journal of Pain. 20(6):469-76, 2004 Nov-Dec.
Ludvigsson ML, Peterson G, O’Leary S, Dedering A, Peolsson A. The effect of neck-specific exercise with, or without a behavioral approach, on pain, disability, and self-efficacy in chronic whiplash-associated disorders: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Clin J Pain. 2015;31(4)294-303.
Ludvigsson ML, Peterson G, Dedering A, Peolsson A. One and two year follow-up of a randomized trial of neck-specific exercise with or without a behavioral approach compared with prescription of physical activity in chronic whiplash disorder. J Rehabil Med. 2016;48(1):56-64.
Neck sprain. Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated December 2013. Accessed June 2, 2016.
NINDS whiplash information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated November 3, 2015. Accessed June 2, 2016.
Verhagen AP, Scholten-Peeters GG, et al. Conservative treatments for whiplash. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. (2):CD003338, 2007.
Walton DM, Macdermid JC, Giorgianni AA, et al. Risk factors for persistent problems following acute whiplash injury: update of a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013;43(2):31-43.
Last reviewed June 2016 by Laura Lei-Rivera, PT, DPT, GCS
Last Updated: 6/16/2015
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.