Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation
by Diane W. Shannon, MD, MPH
Islet cells are the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Pancreatic islet cell transplantation is the transfer of islet cells from a donor to another person. The procedure is being studied as a method to treat select patients with chronic uncontrolled type 1 (and some type 2) diabetes.
Reasons for Procedure
Pancreatic islet cells are made up of alpha and beta cells. Type 1 diabetes develops when the beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed. They are destroyed by the body's own immune system. Without these cells, the body is unable to make insulin. As a result, people with type 1 diabetes need daily insulin injections.
Transplants are most commonly used for persons with recurrent severe hypoglycemia (low blood sugars) and/or who are also receiving kidney transplants. Newly transplanted islet cells can produce insulin. This allows better daily control of the blood sugars with a lower risk of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia occurs when too much insulin is self-injected or when injected insulin to fails to adapt to changes in the body's glucose use. The transplant reduces, or even may eliminate, the need for self-injection.
Possible Complications TOP
If you are planning to have a transplant, your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include:
Factors that may increase the risk of complications include:
What to Expect TOP
Prior to Procedure
A review board will determine if you will be eligible for a transplant. Once on the transplant list, one may have to wait months or years for a suitable donor.
Your doctor will order blood tests. A physical exam will be done. These tests will assess the extent and severity of diabetic complications. This includes damage to the kidneys.
You and the donor will be carefully screened by blood and serum to optimize a match. The better the match, the less chance for islet rejection.
Local or general anesthesia may be used. Local will numb the area. You will be asleep with general anesthesia.
Description of Procedure
Pancreas transplant surgery is major surgery and requires special expertise in select medical centers. The cells are delicate and may fail even in the best of circumstances.
Before surgery, islet cells are removed from a donor pancreas. Usually, these cells are used within the next 24 hours.
An incision will be made in the abdomen. A small plastic tube will be placed through the incision and into a major blood vessel of the liver. An ultrasound will be used to locate the right position. Islets cells will be injected through the tube. The cells travel through the vein and attach to the liver. When successful, they will begin making insulin.
Immediately After Procedure
Your blood glucoses may be normal immediately following transplantation.
Your immune system may attack the transferred cells. To prevent this type of attack, called rejection, you will be given medications to suppress your immune system.
Similar medications to suppress the immune system are usually needed for the rest of the person’s life to prevent rejection.
How Long Will It Take?
Generally several hours
How Much Will It Hurt?
The area of surgical incision may sting or burn. Anesthesia will prevent pain during the procedure. After the procedure, some patients experience pain or soreness for a few days. If you have discomfort, ask your doctor about pain medication.
Average Hospital Stay
Your doctor may repeat the process several times to transfer more islet cells.
Call Your Doctor TOP
After you leave the hospital, contact your doctor if any of the following occurs:
If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.
American College of Surgeons
American Diabetes Association
Canadian Diabetes Association
Canadian Digestive Health Foundation
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Last reviewed September 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Last Updated: 9/30/2013