Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate Deposition Disease

(CPPD; Pseudogout; Chondrocalcinosis)

Definition

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) is a buildup of calcium crystals in the joints. This results in inflammation in the joints.

Arthritis of the Knee

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Causes

In most people, the cause is not known. In others, genes may play a role.

Risk Factors

This problem is more common in people who are over 50 years of age.

Other things that may raise the risk are:

  • Prior joint damage
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Having other family members with this disease
  • Poor knee alignment early in life.
  • Hormonal and metabolism problems, such as:

Symptoms

Most people do not have symptoms. Those who do may have pain in the knee, wrist, hand, pelvis, or hip. It may get worse over a 6 to 24 hour span. Symptoms may also flare up and then go away for a time before returning.

Problems may be:

  • Joint pain
  • Joint stiffness and swelling
  • Redness over the joint

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done.

Your blood may be tested.

A needle may be used to remove and test a sample of the fluid in a joint. This can be done with a synovial fluid analysis.

Images may be needed. This can be done with:

Treatment

There is no cure. The goal of treatment is to manage symptoms during flare-ups. Choices are:

  • Supportive care, such as cold compresses and resting the joint
  • Medicines to ease pain and swelling, such as:
    • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
    • Corticosteroids
    • Gout medicines like colchicine that change the way the body reacts to the crystals

People who are not helped by these methods may need arthrocentesis. It uses a needle to remove excess fluid from a joint.

Prevention

There are no known guidelines to prevent this health problem.

RESOURCES:

American College of Rheumatology
http://www.rheumatology.org
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
http://www.niams.nih.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

The Arthritis Society
http://www.arthritis.ca

References:

Calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD). American College of Rheumatology website. Available at: https://www.rheumatology.org/I-Am-A/Patient-Caregiver/Diseases-Conditions/Calcium-Pyrophosphate-Deposition-CPPD. Accessed February 16, 2021.
Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/calcium-pyrophosphate-dihydrate-deposition-disease. Accessed February 16, 2021.
Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease (CPPD) (Pseudogout). The Arthritis Foundation website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed February 16, 2021.
Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD, or Pseudogout). Cleveland Clinic website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed February 16, 2021.
Rosenthal AK, Ryan LM. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease. N Engl J Med. 2016 Jun 30;374(26):2575-2584.
Last reviewed December 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Warren A. Bodine, DO, CAQSM
Last Updated: 2/16/2021

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