Supplement Forms / Alternate Names
• ALA; Alpha-linolenic Acid; Linseed Oil
Principal Proposed Uses
Other Proposed Uses
• Bipolar Disorder; Cancer Prevention; Heart Disease Prevention; High Blood Pressure; High Cholesterol; Pregnancy Support; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Sjogren’s Syndrome
Flaxseed oil is derived from the hard, tiny seeds of the flax plant. It has been proposed as a less smelly alternative to fish oil. Like fish oil, flaxseed oil contains omega-3 fatty acids, a type of fat your body needs as much as it needs vitamins.
However, it's important to realize that the omega-3 fatty acids in flaxseed oil aren't identical to what you get from fish oil. Flaxseed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), while fish oil contains eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The effects and potential benefits may not be the same.
Flaxseed oil contains both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which are essential to health. Although the exact daily requirement of these essential fatty acids is not known, deficiencies are believed to be fairly common.2 Flaxseed oil may be an economical way to ensure that you get enough essential fatty acids in your diet.
The essential fatty acids in flax can be damaged by exposure to heat, light, and oxygen (essentially, they become rancid). For this reason, you shouldn't cook with flaxseed oil. A good product should be sold in an opaque container, and the manufacturing process should keep the temperature under 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Some manufacturers combine the product with vitamin E because it helps prevent rancidity.
A typical dosage is 1 to 2 tablespoons of flaxseed oil daily. It can be taken in capsule form or made into salad dressing. Some people find the taste pleasant, although others would politely disagree.
For whole flaxseed, a typical dose is 1 tablespoon of the seed (not ground) with plenty of liquid 2 to 3 times daily.
The best use of flaxseed oil is as a general nutritional supplement to provide essential fatty acids. There is little evidence that it is effective for any specific therapeutic purpose.
Flaxseed oil has been proposed as a less smelly alternative to fish oil for the prevention of heart disease. However, there is as yet no consistent evidence that it works. One double-blind study of 56 people failed to find that flax oil improved cholesterol profile.19 Other studies did find improvements in cholesterol and/or blood pressure, but these were small trials and suffered from serious problems in study design.19-20
One study found that a diet high in ALA (from sources other than flaxseed oil) was associated with a reduced risk of heart disease.6 However, there were so many other factors involved that it is hard to say what caused what.7
Sjogren’s syndrome is an autoimmune condition in which the immune system destroys moisture-producing glands, such as tear glands and salivary glands. It can occur by itself, or in conjunction with other autoimmune diseases, such as lupus. One small, double-blind study found preliminary evidence that use of flaxseed oil at a dose of 1-2 g daily can improve dry eye symptoms in Sjogren’s syndrome.21
One very preliminary study hints that flaxseed oil may enhance the effects of conventional treatments for bipolar disorder when combined with conventional medications.9 But, another study did not find flaxseed oil to be beneficial for treating bipolar disorder in children.23
It has been suggested that flaxseed oil may have anticancer effects due to its ALA and lignan content. However, the supporting evidence for this belief is incomplete and somewhat contradictory (some studies actually found weak evidence of increased cancer risk with higher ALA intake).11-17 Although fish oil appears to be effective for reducing symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, one study failed to find flaxseed oil helpful for this purpose.8 One study failed to find flaxseed oil helpful for preventing premature birth.18
Flaxseed oil appears to be a safe nutritional supplement when used as recommended. However, due to the contradictory evidence regarding its effects on cancer (as described above), it should not be taken by people at high risk of cancer except on physician’s advice.
References [ + ]
1. Thompson LU. Experimental studies on lignans and cancer. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;12:691–705.
2. Siguel EN. Essential and trans fatty acid metabolism in health and disease. Compr Ther. 1994;20:500–510.
3. Prasad K. Dietary flax seed in prevention of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 1997;132:69–76.
4. Arjmandi BH, Khan DA, Juma S, et al. Whole flaxseed consumption lowers serum LDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein(a) concentrations in postmenopausal women. Nutr Res. 1998;18:1203–1214.
5. Singer P, Jaeger W, Berger I, et al. Effects of dietary oleic, linoleic, and alpha-linolenic acids on blood pressure, serum lipids, lipoproteins and the formation of eicosanoid precursors in patients with mild essential hypertension. J Hum Hypertens. 1990;4:227–233.
6. de Lorgeril M, Renaud S, Mamelle N, et al. Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet. 1994;343:1454–1459.
7. Rice RD. Mediterranean diet. Lancet. 1994;344:893–894.
8. Nordstrom DCE, Honkanen VEA, Nasu Y, et al. Alpha-linolenic acid in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomized study: Flaxseed vs. safflower seed. Rheumatol Int. 1995;14:231–234.
9. Stoll AL, Locke CA, Marangell LB, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and bipolar disorder: a review. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1999;60:329–337.
10. Thompson LU, Rickard SE, Orcheson LJ, et al. Flaxseed and its lignan and oil components reduce mammary tumor growth at a late stage of carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 1996;17:1373-6.
11. Bougnoux P, Koscielny S, Chajes V, et al. Alpha-linolenic acid content of adipose breast tissue: a host determinant of the risk of early metastasis in breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 1994;70:330–334.
12. Rose DP. Dietary fatty acids and cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(suppl):998S–1003S.
13. Thompson LU. Experimental studies on lignans and cancer. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;12:691–705.
14. Maillard V, Bougnoux P, Ferrari P, et al. N-3 and N-6 fatty acids in breast adipose tissue and relative risk of breast cancer in a case-control study in Tours, France. Int J Cancer. 2002;98:78-83.
15. Fritsche KL, Johnston PV. Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid on growth, metastasis, fatty acid profile and prostaglandin production of two murine mammary adenocarcinomas. J Nutr. 1990;120:1601–1609.
16. De Stefani E, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Mendilaharsu M, Ronco A. Essential fatty acids and breast cancer; a case-control study in Uruguay. Int J Cancer. 1998;76:491–494.
17. Newcomer LM, King IB, Wicklund KG, Stanford JL. The association of fatty acids with prostate cancer risk. Prostate. 2001;47:262-268.
18. Knudsen VK, Hansen HS, Osterdal ML et al. Fish oil in various doses or flax oil in pregnancy and timing of spontaneous delivery: a randomised controlled trial. BJOG. 2006 Mar 27 [Epub ahead of print].
19. Harper CR, Edwards MC, Jacobson TA. Flaxseed oil supplementation does not affect plasma lipoprotein concentration or particle size in human subjects. J Nutr. 2006;136:2844-8.
20. Paschos GK, Magkos F, Panagiotakos DB, et al. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed oil lowers blood pressure in dyslipidaemic patients. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007. (advance online publication 31 January 2007)
21. Pinheiro MN Jr, dos Santos PM, dos Santos RC, et al. Oral flaxseed oil ( Linum usitatissimum) in the treatment for dry-eye Sjogren's syndrome patients. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2007;70:649-655.
22. Barre DE, Mizier-Barre KA, Griscti O, et al. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics. J Oleo Sci. 2008;57:269-273.
23. Gracious BL, Chirieac MC, Costescu S, Finucane TL, Youngstrom EA, Hibbeln JR. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of flax oil in pediatric bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2010;12(2):142-154.
Last reviewed December 2015 by EBSCO CAM Review Board