by Amy Scholten, MPH
Menopause is the time when a woman's menstrual period ends. Menopause is considered complete when a woman has been without her period for one year. Menopause can occur any time between ages 40 and 60. On average, it occurs around age 52.
Menopause is gradual. The period of time leading up to complete menopause is called perimenopause. Premature menopause occurs before the age of 40. Menopause can also be surgically induced when the ovaries are removed.
Menopause is a natural process. Treatment is used to manage the symptoms associated with menopause.
Menopause is caused by a gradual decrease in a hormone called estrogen. Estrogen is released by the ovaries. The decrease in estrogen eventually stops the ovaries from releasing eggs.
Risk Factors TOP
Menopause is a natural process associated with aging.
Symptoms may include:
Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Natural menopause is diagnosed when a woman has not had a menstrual period for 12 consecutive months. Menopause may need to be confirmed if it was caused by a surgical procedure. A blood test may be done to look for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). High levels of FSH may indicate menopause.
Menopause is a natural part of life. It does not necessarily require treatment. However, symptoms and health risks associated with low estrogen can be treated. Symptoms include hot flashes or vaginal dryness. You may need additional treatment if you have (or to prevent) osteoporosis, which is a loss of bone mass.
Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
Types of HRTs include:
HRT is available as tablets, gels, skin patches, vaginal rings, vaginal tablets, injections, and pellets inserted into the skin.
There are a number of possible risks associated with HRT, such as:
A healthful diet during menopause can improve your sense of well-being. It may also reduce the risk of heart disease, osteoporosis, and certain cancers. The diet should be low in fat. It should include plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Your diet should also include enough calcium and vitamin D.
Limit Caffeine and Alcohol TOP
Caffeine and alcohol may increase your symptoms of anxiety and insomnia. They can also increase your loss of calcium. If you drink alcohol, only drink in moderation. Moderation is 1 or less drinks per day.
Regular Exercise TOP
Weight-bearing exercises like walking and climbing stairs, and strength exercises may also decrease your risk of osteoporosis, especially in women who are inactive. Aerobic exercise may reduce some symptoms of menopause in women who are inactive.
Stress Management TOP
Stress management may help ease tension, anxiety, and other menopausal symptoms. Deep breathing, massage, warm baths, and quiet music are examples of relaxation techniques.
Over-the-Counter Products TOP
Vaginal moisturizers and vaginal lubricants are used to help vaginal dryness.
Nonhormonal Medications for Hot Flashes TOP
Menopause is a natural biologic event. It cannot be prevented.
Office on Women's Health
The North American Menopause Society
Women's Health Matters
Menopause. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114698/Menopause. Updated July 22, 2016. Accessed September 28, 2016.
Menopause. Planned Parenthood website. Available at: https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/womens-health/menopause. Accessed April 18, 2013.
Menopause 101: A primer for the perimenopausal. North American Menopause Society website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed April 18, 2013.
9/30/2008 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114698/Menopause: Jacobson BC, Moy B, Colditz GA, Fuchs CS. Postmenopausal hormone use and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(16):1798-1804.
1/30/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114698/Menopause: Borrelli F, Ernst E. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa): A systematic review of adverse events. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199(5):455-466.
1/30/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114698/Menopause: Kaszkin-Bettag M, Ventskovskiy BM, Solskyy S, et al. Confirmation of the efficacy of ERr 731 in perimenopausal women with menopausal symptoms. Altern Ther Health Med. 2009;15(1):24-34.
4/14/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114698/Menopause: Archer DF, Dupont CM, Constantine GD, et al. Desvenlafaxine for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of efficacy and safety. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200(3):238.
11/4/2013 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114698/Menopause: Moilanen JM, Mikkola TS, Raitanen JA, et al. Effect of aerobic training on menopausal symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Menopause. 2012;19(6):691-696.
Last reviewed February 2016 by Kim Carmichael, MD
Last Updated: 11/4/2013