Vaginal Yeast Infection (Vaginal Candidiasis; Candida Vulvovaginitis; Yeast Infection; Monilial Vulvovaginitis; Vulvovaginal Candidiasis; VVC)
Mary Calvagna, MS Definition
A vaginal yeast infection is irritation of the vagina and the outside area around it, called the vulva.
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A yeast infection is caused by an overgrowth of fungus that is normally found in small amounts in the vagina.
Risk Factors TOP
Factors that may increase your chance of a yeast infection include:
Situations that can cause hormonal changes, such as
birth control pills, pregnancy, or menopause Broad-spectrum antibiotics Douching—irrigating the vagina Diabetes, especially when blood sugar is not well-controlled
A compromised immune system from health conditions, such as
infection or chronic use of oral steroid medication
A vaginal yeast infection may cause:
Mild to severe itching A clumpy vaginal discharge that may look like cottage cheese Soreness, irritation, or burning Rash or redness on the skin outside the vagina Painful urination Painful sexual intercourse Diagnosis TOP
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. A swab test of vaginal discharge will taken to confirm the diagnosis.
It is important to see a doctor if you have symptoms. Other health conditions, such as sexually transmitted diseases, have symptoms that are similar to a yeast infection. These can include
An anti-fungal medicine can treat the infection. Most will be an over-the-counter medicine. A more severe infection may need prescription medicine. It may be available as pills or creams.
Probiotics may alos be helpful. It may reduce the infection when used with medicine.
To help reduce your chance of a yeast infection:
Dry the outside vaginal area thoroughly after a shower, bath, or swim. Don't douche. If you have
diabetes, try to control your blood sugar. Avoid frequent or prolonged use of antibiotics if possible. RESOURCES:
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Women's Health—US Department of Health and Human Services
http://www.womenshealth.gov CANADIAN RESOURCES:
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
Women's Health Matters
Vaginal yeast infection. Office on Women's Health website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL) Updated January 6, 2015. Accessed June 7, 2016.
Vulvovaginal candidiasis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:
. Updated April 27, 2016. Accessed June 7, 2016.
Yeast infections. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL) Updated April 2014. Accessed June 7, 2016.
6/29/2018 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance
: Xie HY, Feng D, Wei DM, et al. Probiotics for vulvovaginal candidiasis in non-pregnant women.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;11:CD010496.
Last reviewed May 2018 by
Michael Woods, MD Last Updated: 9/12/2016