A flat foot is a foot that has lost or never developed an arch.
Normal Foot Arch
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Infants and young children naturally have flat feet. The arch should develop over time. Sometimes, the arch does not develop. It is not always clear why this happens.
Causes may be:
In newborns, this problem is more common in girls. In children who are 3 to 8 years old, this problem is more common in boys. In adults, this problem is more common in women after age 55 years of age.
Other things that may raise the risk in children are:
Some people may not have problems. Those who do may have:
You will be asked about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. It will focus on your feet. This is often enough to make the diagnosis.
People without symptoms may just need to be monitored. People who do have symptoms may need to see a doctor who treats feet. Options are:
People who are not helped by these methods may need surgery to create an arch.
There are no known guidelines to prevent this problem.
Foot Health Facts—American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Canadian Federation of Podiatric Medicine
Canadian Podiatric Medical Association
Adult acquired flatfoot. Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons website. Available at: https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases--conditions/adult-acquired-flatfoot/. Updated September 2017. Accessed July 30, 2020.
Flat foot signs and symptoms. UCSF Children’s Hospital website. Available at: https://www.ucsfbenioffchildrens.org/conditions/flatfoot/signs_and_symptoms.html. Accessed July 30, 2020.
Pes planus (flatfoot). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/pes-planus-flatfoot. Updated September 26, 2017. Accessed July 30, 2020.
Toullec E. Adult flatfoot. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2015 Feb;101(1 Suppl):S11-17.
Last reviewed March 2020 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Laura Lei-Rivera, PT, DPT
Last Updated: 3/12/2021