An ostomy is a surgical procedure that connects an internal organ to the surface of the body. An artificial opening (called a stoma) is created to allow waste to exit the body and pass into an external bag.
The 2 types of ostomies discussed here include:
An ostomy may be temporary or permanent.
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The intestines create a path for food to be digested and passed out of the body. An colostomy or ileostomy may be needed if the path through the intestine is interrupted. The interruption may be due to injury or illness of the intestine such as:
A temporary ostomy may be done to allow the intestine to rest after surgery, trauma, or illness.
A permanent ostomy may be needed if:
The Digestive Tract
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Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review potential problems, like:
Before your procedure, talk to your doctor about ways to manage factors that may increase your risk of complications such as:
Certain medications may cause complications during the procedure or recovery. These medications may need to be stopped up to one week before the procedure. Talk to your doctor before the procedure about all medications, herbs, and supplements you are taking.
General anesthesia will be used. It will block pain and keep you asleep through the procedure.
The exact steps will differ based on the specific reason for the surgery. Other work may need to be done before the ostomy is created. The surgery may be:
An opening will be made through the muscle and skin of the abdominal wall.
If a section of the intestine has been removed, part of the remaining intestine will be pulled through the opening. The intestine end is secured outside the opening with sutures. This creates the stoma.
If the intestine remains intact, a section of the intestine will be placed next to the opening in the abdominal wall. Incisions will be made in the intestine wall to create an opening. The open area of the intestine will be pulled through the opening of the abdominal wall. The inner lying tissue of the intestine will create the stoma.
In both options the stoma is secured with sutures.
After the operation, you will be taken to the recovery room for observation.
How long the procedure takes depends on the reason you need to have the ostomy.
Anesthesia will prevent pain during surgery. Pain and discomfort after the procedure can be managed with medications.
The usual length of stay is 3 days-1 week depending on the reason for the procedure and your overall health. Your doctor may choose to keep you longer if complications occur.
Right after the procedure, you will be in a recovery room where your blood pressure, pulse, and breathing will be monitored. Care for the remainder of your hospital stay may also include:
The hospital staff may ask you to:
During your stay, the hospital staff will take steps to reduce your chance of infection such as:
There are also steps you can take to reduce your chances of infection such as:
It will take about 6-8 weeks for the stoma to fully heal. There will be some changes needed to care for your stoma and ostomy bag, but with practice it should not interfere with daily activities. Regular contact with your medical care team will make sure you are healing as expected and help manage any complications.
Call your doctor if any of these occur:
If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
United Ostomy Associations of America
International Ostomy Association
Caring for your ileostomy or colostomy. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center website. Available at: https://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/patient-education/caring-for-your-ileostomy-colostomy. Updated February 22, 2017. Accessed April 3, 2018.
Colorectal surgery considerations. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T900261/Colorectal-surgery-considerations . Updated February 11, 2018. Accessed April 3, 2018.
Colostomy. Johns Hopkins Medicine website. Available at: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/test_procedures/gastroenterology/colostomy_92,p07727. Accessed April 3, 2018.
Ostomy. American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons website. Available at: https://www.fascrs.org/patients/disease-condition/ostomy-0. Accessed April 3, 2018.
Ostomy surgery of the bowel. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/ostomy-surgery-bowel. Updated August 13, 2014. Accessed April 3, 2018.
What is a colostomy or ileostomy? American College of Surgeons website. Available at: https://www.facs.org/~/media/files/education/patient%20ed/your%20colostomy.ashx. Accessed April 3, 2018.
Last reviewed March 2018 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Daus Mahnke, MD
Last Updated: 12/2/2014