Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is when the amniotic sac breaks before 37 weeks of pregnancy and labor has not started within 1 hour. The sac holds amniotic fluid and the growing baby. In PPROM, the fluid in the sac leaks or gushes out of the birth canal. This is also known as your water breaking.
Fetus in the Amniotic Sac
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PPROM is caused by membranes that are weak or thin.
Things that may raise the risk of this problem are:
The main symptom of PPROM is fluid leaking from the birth canal. There may be a sudden gush or a slow trickle.
PPROM raises the risk of infection. There may also be:
If a large amount of fluid is leaking from the birth canal, PPROM is likely.
It can be hard to tell a slow amniotic trickle apart from urine. You may also have these tests:
An ultrasound may be done to see how much fluid you have.
Treatment depends on when it happens in the pregnancy.
The doctor will:
The doctor will give antibiotics and steroids. Delivery may be delayed until 33 weeks of pregnancy.
The doctor may admit you to the hospital for bed rest and monitoring. 24 weeks is about the youngest a baby can be born.
There is no way to prevent PPROM.
American Pregnancy Association
National Institute of Child Health and Development
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
Women's Health Matters
Committee on Practice Bulletins-Obstetrics. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Practice Bulletin No. 188: Prelabor Rupture of Membranes. Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Jan;131(1):e1-e14.
Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes-pprom. Accessed October 19, 2020.
Last reviewed September 2020 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Elliot M. Levine, MD, FACOG
Last Updated: 4/27/2021