Oxygen passes from a mother to a baby through the umbilical cord before birth. A baby's lungs should take over after birth. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is when this does not happen and blood flows away from the lungs because of high blood pressure in the arteries that go to the lungs. The baby will not get enough oxygen. This is a serious problem that can cause long-term health problems.
Circulatory System of Infant
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The exact cause is not always known. It may be caused by
This problem is more common in full-term babies. It is also more common in premature babies who have health problems that affect breathing. Other things that may raise a baby's risk are:
PPHN may cause:
A physical exam will be done. Blood tests will also be done. The baby's oxygen levels will be checked. This can be done with pulse oximetry monitoring. This is often enough to make the diagnosis.
Images will be taken of the heart to confirm the diagnosis. This can be done with an echocardiogram.
The goal of treatment is to increase oxygen to the baby. This can be done with:
Other methods may be:
Medicine may be given to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow.
ECMO is a machine that can take over the job of the lungs. It requires major surgery. It may be done in babies with severe PPHN who do not respond to other treatments.
There are no known ways to prevent PPHN.
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
Kids Health—Nemours Foundation
Canadian Paediatric Society
Nair J, Lakshminrusimha S. Update on PPHN: mechanisms and treatment. Semin Perinatol. 2014 Mar;38(2):78-91.
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn-pphn. Updated January 23, 2019. Accessed January 3, 2020.
Last reviewed September 2019 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Kari Kassir, MD
Last Updated: 7/17/2020