Short bowel syndrome is a complication that can occur in people who have a large part or all of their small intestine removed.
The Small Intestines
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Short bowel syndrome occurs when half or more of the small intestine is removed. It reduces the absorption of vitamins and minerals from food.
Factors that may increase the chances of short bowel syndrome:
Symptoms of short bowel syndrome may include:
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Blood tests may also be performed to check for nutritional and absorption problems.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:
If you are malnourished, your doctor may give you food, fluid, and electrolytes through an IV. You will be advised to gradually increase your caloric intake and avoid certain foods. Initially, your diet will be high-protein, low-fat, and lactose-free.
In addition to changing your diet, you may need to take vitamin and mineral supplements. Antidiarrheal medications and medications that slow the contraction and relaxation of the intestinal muscles can also slow your digestion so you can absorb more nutrients. Depending on your symptoms, your doctor may prescribe an H2 blocker, a proton pump inhibitor, cholestyramine, and/or octreotide.
Transplantation of small bowel is an option for those who cannot maintain their nutritional status with other treatments.
There are no current guidelines to prevent short bowel syndrome.
American Gastroenterological Association
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
Canadian Digestive Health Foundation
Short bowel syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115699/Short-bowel-syndrome . Updated January 5, 2018. Accessed April 3, 2018.
Short bowel syndrome. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/short-bowel-syndrome. Updated July 2015. Accessed April 3, 2018.
Last reviewed March 2018 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Daus Mahnke, MD
Last Updated: 5/7/2014