Torticollis is when the head turns and tilts to one side and the chin points to the other side. One shoulder may lift. It may be all the time or may come and go.
The exact cause is not known. It may be from:
This problem is more common in women, children under 10, and adults who are 30 to 60 years old. The risk is higher in people who have other family members with this problem.
Muscles of the Neck
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Problems range from mild to severe. It often worsens slowly for 1 to 5 years. Then it slows and stays the same. It may last for life. It can result in problems moving and affect posture.
Problems may be:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done.
Pictures may be needed. This can be done with:
Treatment depends on whether the problem has been since birth (congenital) or started later (acquired). Options are:
There are no known ways to prevent this problem.
Dystonia Medical Research Foundation
National Spasmodic Torticollis Association
The College of Family Physicians of Canada
Cervical dystonia. Dystonia Medical Research Foundation website. Available at: https://dystonia-foundation.org/what-is-dystonia/types-dystonia/cervical-dystonia. Accessed October 9, 2020.
Cervical dystonia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/cervical-dystonia. Accessed October 9, 2020.
Dystonias fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Dystonias-Fact-Sheet. Accessed October 9, 2020.
Marion MH, Humberstone M, Grunewald R, Wimalaratna S. British Neurotoxin Network recommendations for managing cervical dystonia in patients with a poor response to Botulinum toxin. Pract Neurol. 2016;0:1-8. Available at:
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Accessed October 9, 2020.
Tomczak KK, Rosman NP. Torticollis. J Child Neurol. 2013 Mar;28(3):365-378.
Last reviewed September 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board
Laura Lei-Rivera, PT, DPT, GCS
Last Updated: 5/14/2021