During the initial consultation, both partners will be evaluated for fertility problems. You will be asked about any symptoms. Your family and medical history will be reviewed. This will include any serious medical conditions or treatments, history of previous sexually transmitted diseases or trauma. You will be asked about your lifestyle habits, including the use of tobacco and alcohol.
Male infertility is not the same as erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is the inability to attain or maintain an erection of the penis that is firm enough for sexual intercourse.
A physical exam will also be done. During the physical exam, your doctor will look for physical problems that may cause infertility. This can include varicoceles—dilation or swelling of the veins of the testicle—or undescended testicles. The pattern of hair growth in the genital area will be assessed. The prostate gland will also be assessed.
You will probably be asked to give a blood and semen sample. They will be sent for analysis. Other tests will depend on the doctor's evaluation of your physical, medical, and family history.
This is usually the first part of any evaluation for male infertility. The semen analysis is performed in a laboratory or your doctor’s office. The semen sample needs to be examined soon after it is produced—within a few hours. You should abstain from ejaculating for at least 48 hours but not more than 5 days before the semen analysis.
Several aspects of the semen will be assessed:
The normal volume of semen is 2 to 5 milliliters, which is about a teaspoon. If the volume is low, it could indicate that the seminal vesicles are not making enough fluid or that the tubes are blocked. The prostate gland also contributes fluid to semen, and low total volume could indicate a problem with the prostate.
The normal number of sperm in a sample is 40 million to 300 million per milliliter. Sperm counts below 10 million per milliliter are considered poor. A sperm count is considered adequate if it is over 20 million, and the movement and shape of the sperm are normal.
This refers to the sperm’s ability to move. The percentage of sperm that are active will be rated (from 0% to 100%), with normal considered at least 50% active. In addition, the quality of sperm movement forward will be assessed and rated on a 0 to 4 scale, with a score of 2 or more considered enough.
To be considered normal, a sperm must have an oval head, a normal mid-piece, and a tail. An abnormal sperm could have a tapered head or two tails. The sperm head contains enzymes that break down the egg's protective coating and allow the sperm to penetrate the egg. High numbers of abnormally shaped sperm can reduce the ability of the sperm to fertilize an egg.
The semen analysis also reports the presence or absence of the sugar fructose, which is normally present in semen. If fructose is absent, it suggests a congenital absence of the vas deferens or seminal vesicles or an obstruction in the ducts.
Normal fresh semen immediately coagulates into a gel that liquefies within 20 minutes or so. If semen does not gel and then liquefy again, it could suggest a problem in the seminal vesicles.
If the sperm do not move well and clump, the doctor may look for antibodies in the blood and on the sperm’s surface. Antibodies that attach to the head of the sperm can affect its ability to penetrate the egg, and antibodies on the tail can alter motility.
This test checks for bacterial infections that may contribute to infertility.
In this test, sperm is mixed with hamster eggs to assess the sperm’s ability to break through the outer membrane of the egg and fuse with the egg’s cytoplasm. This test is commonly called the hamster egg test or sperm penetration assay (SPA).
This test assesses how well the sperm can move through mucus, which is normally present in the woman’s cervix. For this test, cervical mucus is simulated with cow mucus.
A blood test may be performed to determine your levels of important reproductive hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), androgens (testosterone), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin.
If your sperm count is very low, you may have a chromosomal abnormality that is affecting your ability to produce sperm. The presence of this type of abnormality can be determined through a blood test that is sent to a special lab.
In addition, there are more specific genetic tests that may be done depending on your history and examination.
In some circumstances, your doctor may request additional tests. These may include:
Infertility. Protect Your Fertility website. Available at: http://www.protectyourfertility.org/malerisks.html. Accessed December 18, 2017.
Infertility in men. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T902812/Infertility-in-men. Updated December 4, 2017. Accessed December 18, 2017.
Lindsay TJ, Vitrikas KR. Evaluation and treatment of infertility. Am Fam Physician. 2015;91(5):308-314.
Male infertility/andrology. American Society for Reproductive Medicine website. Available at: http://www.reproductivefacts.org/topics/topics-index/male-infertility. Accessed December 18, 2017
Overview of infertility. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/infertility/overview-of-infertility. Updated March 2017. Accessed December 18, 2017.
Last reviewed November 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrienne Carmack, MD Last Updated: 12/20/2014