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Bulking Up on Fiber

image Fiber. You know you need to eat it. You are pretty sure it is good for you. But, you may not know what it is and why it is good for you.

Fiber Facts

Fiber is found only in plants. It is from the plant cells, particularly the cell walls. The plant fiber that we eat is called dietary fiber. It is unique from other components of the plant because humans lack the enzymes necessary to digest it.

Dietary fiber is made up of 2 types of fiber: soluble and insoluble. Soluble means that when the fiber is mixed with a liquid, it forms a gel-like solution. Insoluble fiber does not mix with liquid and passes through the digestive tract largely intact. Both types of fiber help maintain bowel regularity.

Diets high in fiber have been associated with reduced risk of death due to cardiovascular disease (including heart attack and stroke), cancer, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

Soluble Fiber

When eaten as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet, soluble fiber can help lower cholesterol and may help lower your risk cardiovascular disease. Examples of foods high in soluble fiber include oatmeal, beans, peas, and citrus fruits.

Insoluble Fiber

Insoluble fiber is important for normal digestive health. Insoluble fiber speeds up movement through the small intestine and helps to alleviate constipation. Foods that are high in insoluble fiber include apple skin, wheat cereal, whole-wheat breads, and carrots.

How Much Fiber Do I Need?

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recommends that women consume 25 grams of fiber daily, while men consume 38 grams. Fiber needs drop after the age of 50. Women older than 50 should consume 21 grams of fiber daily, and men should consume 30 grams daily. This includes both soluble and insoluble fiber. The following table lists how much fiber you can find in some common foods.

Food Serving size Total Fiber
(grams)
Soluble Fiber Insoluble Fiber
Vegetables
Broccoli, cooked ½ cup 1.5 1 0.5
Brussels sprouts, cooked ½ cup 4.5 3.0 1.5
Carrots, cooked ½ cup 2.5 1 1.4
Artichoke, fresh ½ cup 4 3 1
Fruits
Apple 1 medium 4 1 3
Banana 1 medium 3 1 2
Blackberries ½ cup 4 1 3
Nectarine 1 medium 2 1 1
Citrus fruit (orange, grapefruit) 1 medium 2-3 1 1-2
Peach 1 medium 2 1 1
Pears 1 medium 4 2 2
Plums 1 medium 1.5 1 0.5
Prunes ¼ cup 3 1.5 1.5
Legumes
Black beans, cooked ½ cup 5.5 2 3.5
Kidney beans, cooked ½ cup 6 3 3
Lima beans, cooked ½ cup 6.5 3.5 3
Navy beans, cooked ½ cup 6 2 4
Northern beans, cooked ½ cup 5.5 5 0.5
Pinto beans, cooked ½ cup 7 2 5
Lentils, cooked ½ cup 8 1 7
Peas, cooked ½ cup 6 1 5
Whole grain cereals
All Bran cereal 1/3 cup 8 0.7 7.3
Oatmeal, cooked ½ cup 2 1 1
Oat bran ½ cup 3 2 1
Shredded wheat 2/3 cup 3 0.3 2.7
Wheat germ 2/3 cup 8 1 7
Pearl barley, cooked ½ cup 5 2 3
Brown rice ½ cup 4 0.5 3.5
Seeds
Psyllium seeds 1 tablespoon 6 5 1

Source: Journal of Family Practice. 2006;9:761-769

Ways to Increase Fiber

It is easier than you think to increase the fiber in your diet. It just takes a little thought and some action. Here are a few ideas to help you get on track to getting your daily recommended amount of fiber.

RESOURCES:

Choose My Plate—US Department of Agriculture
http://www.choosemyplate.gov

Eat Right—Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
http://www.eatright.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Dietitians of Canada
http://www.dietitians.ca

Health Canada Food and Nutrition
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

REFERENCES:

Dietary guidelines for Americans 2010. US Department of Health and Human Services website. Available at: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf. Accessed January 5, 2017.

Dietary interventions for cardiovascular disease prevention. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115449/Dietary-interventions-for-cardiovascular-disease-prevention. Updated August 18, 2016. Accessed January 5, 2017.

Eat 3 or more whole grain foods every day. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/WeightManagement/LosingWeight/Eat-3-or-More-Whole-Grain-Foods-Every-Day_UCM_320264_Article.jsp. Updated August 29, 2016. Accessed January 5, 2017.

Shamliyan T, Jacobs D, et al. Are your patients with risk of CVD getting the viscous soluble fiber they need? J Fam Prac. 2006;9:761-769.

Whole grains and fiber. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/NutritionCenter/HealthyDietGoals/Whole-Grains-and-Fiber_UCM_303249_Article.jsp. Updated October 11, 2016. Accessed January 5, 2017.

3/28/2011 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillancehttps://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115449/Dietary-interventions-for-cardiovascular-disease-prevention: Park Y, Subar AF, et al. Dietary fiber intake and mortality in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(12):1061-1068.

Last reviewed January 2017 by Michael Woods, MD  Last Updated: 1/14/2015