Dysplasia is abnormal growth or development of cells. Cervical dysplasia happens in the cells covering the surface of a woman's cervix. If cervical dysplasia is not treated, it may lead to cervical cancer.
Cervical dysplasia is most often caused by a sexually transmitted virus. The virus is called the human papillomavirus (HPV).
There are different types of HPV. The risk of cervical disease will differ based on the type of HPV.
Things that may increase the chance of cervical dysplasia include:
There are often no symptoms with cervical dysplasia. Cervical changes are most often found in screening tests.
Tests to detect cervical dysplasia include:
Note: Pap tests will be done more often after abnormal results. Testing may also be done more often if some other conditions, such as immune problems or cervical cancer.
Treatment will vary based on type, location, and size of the dysplasia. Some dysplasia does not need treatment or will go away on its own. Regular pap tests will be done to track changes that may need care.
The main goal of treatment is to destroy or remove abnormal cells. Options include:
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
American Sexual Health Association
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
Women's Health Matters
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Practice Bulletin No. 168: Cervical Cancer Screening and Prevention. Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Jan;127(1):e1.
Cervical cancer screening. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116761/Cervical-cancer-screening. Updated January 29, 2019. Accessed March 9, 2020.
Immunization schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html. Updated February 6, 2017. Accessed March 9, 2020.
Management of Abnormal Cervical Cytology. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:https://www.dynamed.com/management/management-of-abnormal-cervical-cytology. Updated April 6, 2018. Accessed March 9, 2020.
Massad LS, Einstein MH, Huh WK, et al; 2012 ASCCP Consensus Guidelines Conference. 2012 updated consensus guidelines for the management of abnormal cervical cancer screening tests and cancer precursors. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2013 Apr;17(5 Suppl 1):S1-S27
Last reviewed November 2019 by Beverly Siegal, MD, FACOG Last Updated: 3/9/2020