Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder. A person with OCD has unwanted repetitive thoughts and behaviors.
The exact cause of OCD is unknown. The nervous system, environment, genes, and mental health may all play a role.
OCD is more common in late teens into early adulthood. Your risk is also higher if you have family with OCD.
OCD may cause:
Conditions associated with OCD include:
If you have OCD, you may know that your thoughts and compulsions do not make sense, but you are unable to stop them.
Your doctor may ask you many questions about your symptoms. This will help to make a diagnosis. OCD is diagnosed when obsessions and/or compulsions either:
OCD cannot be cured. Treatment can reduce OCD thoughts and compulsions. Early treatment can have better results. Common treatment approaches include a combination of medication and therapy.
Medicine can help to decrease symptoms. Options may include one or more of the following:
It may take some time to find the best combination for you. Work with your care team to help reach your health goals.
Therapy can help to manage habits and actions with OCD. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is one common option.
Other examples of therapies used to treat OCD include:
Other therapy may be tried for OCD that does not respond to usual care. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have shown some promise. However, these are not for everyone. Be sure to discuss them with your doctor.
There are no steps for preventing OCD.
Anxiety and Depression Association of America
International OCD Foundation
Canadian Mental Health Association
Canadian Psychiatric Association
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114503/Obsessive-compulsive-disorder-OCD. Updated September 25, 2017. Accessed October 4, 2017.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health website. Available at: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd/index.shtml. Updated January 2016. Accessed October 4, 2017.
OCD risk higher when several variations in gene occur together. National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/news/science-news/2008/ocd-risk-higher-when-several-variations-in-gene-occur-together.shtml. Accessed October 4, 2017.
4/16/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillancehttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114503/Obsessive-compulsive-disorder-OCD: Simpson HB, Foa EB, Liebowitz MR, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for augmenting pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165(5):621-630.
7/15/2016 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillancehttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114503/Obsessive-compulsive-disorder-OCD: Fontenelle LF, Coutinho ES, Lins-Martins NM, Fitzgerald PB, Fujiwara H, Yücel M. Electroconvulsive therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015;76(7):949-957.
11/6/2018 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillancehttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114503/Obsessive-compulsive-disorder-OCD: FDA permits marketing of transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm617244.htm.
Last reviewed September 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrian Preda, MD Last Updated: 9/4/2020