Botulinum toxin is made from a type of bacteria. It is a toxin that affects nerves. An injection puts this toxin into muscle. There, it blocks the release of the chemical signal from the nerves to muscles. This will decrease the muscle contraction.
Botulinum toxin is used for cosmetic and medical reasons. The injection process is often called botox injection, although any brand of the botulinum toxin may be used.
The injection is FDA approved to treat:
The injection has also been used to treat other conditions, such as:
Complications are rare. When they occur, they are often temporary and mild. Side effects are related to the site of injection. For example, if injections take place near the eyes, there may be complications with the eyelids or brow line.
Temporary issues may include:
The following are less common reactions. They are generally mild and do not last long.
Other complications that may occur include:
The toxin can also interact with medications such as antibiotics. Tell your doctor about all of the medications that you are taking.
You should not have botox if you:
Most often, none is given. Some people may prefer to have the area numbed for comfort. In this case, a topical anesthetic may be used.
A thin needle will be used. The toxin will be injected through the skin into the targeted muscle. You will often need several injections in a small area.
The time needed will depend on the number of sites involved. It is often less than 20 minutes.
You may have some minimal discomfort.
Normal activities may be resumed after the procedure.
The toxin temporarily weakens targeted muscles. The treatment lasts up to 4 months. With repeated use, the effects may last longer.
Contact your doctor if your recovery is not progressing as expected or you develop complications, such as:
If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.
American Society for Dermatologic Surgery
American Society of Plastic Surgeons
Canadian Dermatology Association
Allergan physician production information. Botox cosmetic (botulinum toxin type A). Available at: http://www.allergan.com/miscellaneous-pages/allergan-pdf-files/ehs-botox. Updated April 2, 2015. Accessed February 21, 2018.
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3/19/2010 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillancehttps://www.dynamed.com: FDA approves Botox to treat spasticity in flexor muscles of the elbow, wrist and fingers. Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm203776.htm. Updated April 24, 2013. Accessed February 12, 2016.
5/17/2012 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillancehttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T253050/Migraine-prophylaxis-in-adults: Jackson JL, Kuriyama A, Hayashino Y. Botulinum toxin A for prophylactic treatment of migraine and tension headaches in adults: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2012;307(16):1736-1745.
Last reviewed March 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Rimas Lukas, MD Last Updated: 2/12/2016