Cervical conization is the removal of a section of the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus. This procedure accesses the cervix through the vagina.
A cervical conization may be used as part of diagnosis or treatment. It can remove a sample of abnormal cervix tissue. The sample will then be sent to a lab to look for abnormal cells like cervical cancer. It is often used after an abnormal pap smear.
Conization can also remove abnormal tissue. It may be done as part of treatment.
Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely free of risk. The doctor will review a list of possible problems such as:
Things that increase the risk of problems from the surgery include:
You may need to stop eating or drinking 8 hours prior to the procedure.
Anesthesia will depend on how much tissue will be removed. Options include:
A flat tool will be inserted into the vagina and gently opened. It will allow tools to pass easier to the cervix. A knife, laser, or heated loop will remove a cone-shaped area of tissue. The doctor may remove all abnormal cells that can be seen or just a section for testing. Stitches may be placed to control bleeding. The stitches will fade and be absorbed by the body.
The tissue will be sent to a lab. The test results will be available within a week.
The procedure will take less than an hour.
Anesthesia will prevent pain during this procedure. There may be cramping and pain for a few days. Medicine should help to manage it.
You will rest in a recovery area until the anesthesia wears off. When you are awake and aware, you will be able to go home.
It will take about a week to return to normal activity. It will take about 4 to 6 weeks for the area to fully heal. A follow-up exam may be done in 6 weeks.
After arriving home, contact your doctor if any of the following occur:
If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.
National Cancer Institute
National Cervical Cancer Coalition
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
Women's Health Matters
Basu P, Taghavi K, Hu SY, Mogri S, Joshi S. Management of cervical premalignant lesions. Curr Probl Cancer. 2018 Mar;42(2):129
Cervical Cancer: Surgery. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CervicalCancer/DetailedGuide/cervical-cancer-treating-surgery. Updated January 3, 2020. Accessed March 25, 2020.
Massad LS, Einstein MH, Huh WK, et al; 2012 American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology Consensus Guidelines Conference. 2012 updated consensus guidelines for the management of abnormal cervical cancer screening tests and cancer precursors. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2013 Apr;17(5 Suppl 1):S1-S27.
Management of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) and Adenocarcinoma In Situ (AIS). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:https://www.dynamed.com/management/management-of-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia-cin-and-adenocarcinoma-in-situ-ais. Updated July 30, 2018. Accessed March 25, 2020.
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Last reviewed September 2019 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Mary-Beth Seymour, RN Last Updated: 9/25/2020