Weight Loss Aids
Losing weight can be a lifelong challenge. Researchers who study obesity consider it a chronic health condition that must be managed much like high blood pressure or high cholesterol. That means there's no easy cure.
Losing just 5% to 10% of your total weight can lower blood pressure, improve cholesterol profile, prevent diabetes, improve blood sugar control if you already have diabetes, and reduce the risk of developing osteoarthritis of the knee.1-6
A combination of improved diet and regular exercise might be the best way to lose weight and keep it off.
Although prior weight-loss drugs, such as amphetamines and fen-phen, have had a patchy safety record, sibutramine (Meridia) appears to be safe and modestly effective for weight loss. New drugs currently in development will likely offer greater benefits.
It is commonly stated that the high-fructose corn syrup added to many foods is a major cause of obesity. However, while there is little doubt that, in general, excess intake of calories promotes obesity, the specific relationship of this substance to weight gain remains questionable.210
Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Chromium is a mineral the body needs in only small amounts, but it's important to human nutrition.
Although it has principally been studied for improving blood sugar control in people with diabetes, chromium has also been tried for reducing total weight and body fat percentage, with some success. Both of these potential benefits involve chromium's effects on insulin. Before we can explain how chromium may help, we need to provide some background information on how the body controls its blood sugar levels.
The body needs a constant level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. When you digest a carbohydrate meal, glucose levels rise. Protein meals have the same effect, although to a lesser extent. Your body responds by secreting insulin. Insulin causes the cells of your body to absorb glucose out of the blood, thereby reducing circulating blood sugar.
Once cells have taken in glucose, they can burn it for energy or convert it to a storage form. Liver and muscle cells can store a limited amount of glucose as glycogen. Fat cells can convert unlimited amounts of glucose into energy stored as fat.
The process also goes the opposite way. When your body has used up the food from its last meal, blood glucose levels drop. Just as the body doesn't like it when glucose levels are too high, low glucose levels also cause problems. So your body applies its control mechanisms to raise blood sugar levels. It does so by reducing its output of insulin and also by raising levels of another hormone called glucagon. The net effect is that energy storage depots are mobilized. Glycogen is converted back into glucose. In addition, fat cells release their contents into the bloodstream to supply an alternate energy source.
In summary, high insulin levels build fat, while low insulin levels break down fat.
Based on this push-pull effect, if you want to lose weight you'd probably rather keep your insulin levels low.
Dieting is the most obvious method of reducing insulin. When you don't take in enough calories to supply your body's daily needs, insulin levels fall and your body breaks down fat cells. Exercising is another method; by increasing your body's energy requirements, exercise causes insulin levels to fall and fat cells to break down.
But it's difficult to consistently use more energy than you take in. Hunger takes over, and you start wanting to eat. If there were some way to trigger fat breakdown without going hungry, it would make weight loss much easier.
There's another important connection between insulin and weight to consider. Individuals who weigh too much often develop insulin resistance. In this condition, certain cells of the body become less sensitive to insulin. The body senses this, and increases insulin production until it overcomes the resistance. It is possible that fat cells respond to these increased levels of insulin by storing even more fat.
Chromium is thought to improve the body's responsiveness to insulin. Combining this fact with the insulin-weight connections just described, some researchers have proposed that chromium may assist in decreasing weight or improving body composition (the ratio of fatty tissue to lean tissue).
Their main argument goes like this: chromium increases insulin sensitivity. This causes levels of insulin to fall.88 With reduced amounts of insulin in the blood, fat cells are less inclined to store fat, and weight loss may become easier.
In addition, there is some evidence that chromium partially blocks insulin's effects on fat cells, interfering with its fat-building effect.89 This could also promote weight loss. And another small study suggests that chromium may work by influencing the brain and its role in appetite and food cravings.242
There are several flaws in these arguments, though. For example, even very small amounts of insulin in the blood effectively suppress fat breakdown.90-94 Another problem is that during insulin resistance, fat cells also appear to become resistant to insulin.95-98 Insulin resistance, in other words, might be a natural method of keeping the lid on weight gain. Chromium supplements might have the undesired effect of increasing the ability of fat cells to respond to insulin, helping them store fat better!
However, theory only takes one so far. It is more important to review the results of studies in which people were given chromium supplements to reduce their weight.
What Is the Scientific Evidence That Chromium Aids Weight Loss?
In the largest study, 219 people were given either placebo, 200 mcg of chromium picolinate daily, or 400 mcg of chromium picolinate daily.7 Participants were not advised to follow any particular diet. Over a period of 72 days, individuals taking chromium experienced significantly greater weight loss than those not taking chromium, over 2-½ pounds versus about ¼ pound. Interestingly, individuals taking chromium actually gained lean body mass, so the difference in loss of fatty tissue was greater: over 4 pounds versus less than ½ pound. However, a very high dropout rate makes the results of this study somewhat unreliable.
In a smaller double-blind study by the same researcher, 130 moderately overweight individuals attempting to lose weight were given either placebo or 400 mcg of chromium daily.8 Although hints of benefit were seen, they were too slight to be statistically significant.
Several other small double-blind, placebo-controlled studies also failed to find evidence of the benefit of chromium picolinate as an aid to weight loss.9-14,99,136, 211,243 One study failed to find benefit with a combination of chromium and conjugated linoleic acid.225
When larger studies find positive results and smaller studies do not, it often indicates that the treatment under study is only weakly effective. This may be the case with chromium as a weight-loss treatment.138
For more information, including dosage and safety issues, see the full Chromium article.
Pyruvate supplies the body with pyruvic acid, a natural compound that plays important roles in the manufacture and use of energy. Theoretically, taking pyruvate might increase the body's metabolism, particularly of fat.
Several small studies enrolling a total of about 150 people have found evidence that pyruvate or DHAP (a combination of pyruvate and the related substance dihydroxyacetone) can aid weight loss and/or improve body composition.21-25,115
For example, in a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 51 people were given either pyruvate (6 g daily), placebo, or no treatment.115 All participated in an exercise program. In the treated group, significant decreases in fat mass (2.1 kg) and percentage body fat (2.6%) were seen, along with a significant increase in muscle mass (1.5 kg). No significant changes were seen in the placebo or nontreatment groups.
Another placebo-controlled study (blinding not stated) used a much higher dose of pyruvate, 22 g to 44 g daily depending on total calorie intake.21 In this trial, 34 slightly overweight people were put on a mildly weight-reducing diet for 4 weeks. Subsequently, half were given a liquid dietary supplement containing pyruvate. Over the course of 6 weeks, people in the pyruvate group lost a small amount of weight (about 1-½ pounds) while those in the placebo group did not lose weight. Most of the weight loss came from fat.
Another interesting placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of DHAP when people who had previously lost weight increased their calorie intake.23 Seventeen severely overweight women were put on a restricted diet as inpatients for 3 weeks, during which time they lost approximately 17 pounds. They were then given a high-calorie diet. Approximately half of the women also received 15 g of pyruvate and 75 g of dihydroxyacetone daily. The results found that after 3 weeks of this weight-gaining diet, individuals receiving the supplements gained only about 4 pounds, as compared to about 6 pounds in the placebo group. Close evaluation showed that pyruvate specifically blocked regain of fat weight.
While all these studies are intriguing, we really need large studies (100 participants or more) to establish the benefits of pyruvate for weight loss.
For more information, including dosage and safety issues, see the full Pyruvate article.
Dietary fiber is important to many intestinal tract functions including digestion and waste excretion. It also appears to have a mild cholesterol-lowering effect and might help reduce the risk of some kinds of cancer (although the current evidence is a bit contradictory).
Fiber might also be useful for losing weight. It's thought to work in a simple way by filling the stomach and causing a feeling of fullness, while providing little to no calories. Fiber might also interfere with absorption of fat.
There are two kinds of fiber: soluble fiber, which swells up and holds water, and insoluble fiber, which does not. Soluble fiber is found in psyllium seed (sold as a laxative), apples, and oat bran. Most other plant-based foods contain insoluble fiber.
Fiber supplements may contain a variety of soluble or insoluble fibers from grain, citrus, vegetable, and even shellfish sources.
Several double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have evaluated fiber supplements as a weight-loss aid. The results have been somewhat inconsistent, but in general it appears that some forms of fiber may slightly enhance weight loss.
In one of the largest studies, 97 mildly overweight women on a strict low-calorie diet were given either placebo or an insoluble fiber (type not stated) 3 times daily for 11 weeks.26 Women given fiber lost almost 11 pounds compared to about 7 pounds in the placebo group. Participants using the fiber reported less hunger.
Researchers weren't finished with their subjects! For an additional 16 weeks, their diet was changed to one that supplied more calories. As expected, participants regained some weight during this period. Nonetheless, by the end of the 16 weeks, individuals taking fiber were still 8 pounds lighter than at the beginning of the study, while those taking placebo were only 6 pounds lighter.
Another study evaluated whether the benefits of dietary fiber endure over 6 months of dieting. This double-blind trial of 52 overweight individuals found that use of an insoluble, dietary fiber product (made from beet, barley, and citrus) almost doubled the degree of weight loss as compared to placebo.27 Once more, participants using the fiber supplement reported less hunger.
Two other double-blind, placebo-controlled studies evaluated a similar insoluble fiber product.28,116 The first enrolled 60 moderately overweight women and put them on a 1,400-calorie diet along with placebo or fiber for a period of 2 months. The other study was similar, but enrolled only 45 women and followed them for 3 months. The results of both studies again showed improved weight loss and reduced feelings of hunger in the treated groups. However, a 24-week study of 53 moderately overweight individuals found no difference in effect between placebo and 4 g of insoluble fiber daily.117 Another study failed to find benefit with either of two soluble fiber supplements (methylcellulose or pectin plus beta glucan) in terms of weight, hunger, or satiety.149
Glucomannan, a source of soluble dietary fiber from the tubers of Amorphophallus konjac, has also been tried for weight loss, with positive results in adults. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 20 overweight individuals, researchers found that use of glucomannan significantly improved weight loss over an 8-week period.29 Benefits were also seen in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 28 overweight individuals who had just experienced a heart attack.30 However, another trial studied the effectiveness of glucomannan as a weight-loss agent in 60 overweight children, and found no benefit.31
An 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 59 overweight people evaluated the effects of chitosan, a mostly insoluble fiber from crustaceans, taken at a dose of 1.5 g prior to each of the two biggest meals of the day.32 No special diets were assigned. The results showed that, on average, participants in the placebo group gained more than 3 pounds over the course of the study, while those taking chitosan lost more than 2 pounds. However, a subsequent 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 250 people using the same dosage of chitosan failed to find benefit.150 Negative results were also seen in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 51 women given 1,200 mg twice daily 118 and in a 28-day, double-blind trial of 30 overweight people using 1 g twice daily.33 Although benefits have shown up in other studies, the balance of evidence indicate that chitosan probably does not work.170,205,241 Further argument against the use of chitosan comes from the fact that chitosan supplements may at times contain toxic levels of arsenic.151
A few trials have only evaluated effects on hunger and satiety rather than weight loss. One study found that the soluble fiber pectin (from apples) reduces hunger sensations.34 Another found that the soluble fiber guar gum slows stomach emptying and increases the sensation of fullness.35 However, a more recent study evaluated the effects of guar gum in 25 women undergoing a weight-loss program, and found no influence on hunger.36 In another study, consuming fiber from barley caused an increase in calorie consumption.209
The optimum dose of fiber and the proper time to take it have not been determined.
In the first three studies described previously, insoluble fiber supplements were given 20 to 30 minutes prior to each meal at a dose of about 2.3 g, along with a large glass of water. For additional dosage information, see the full articles on Glucomannan and Chitosan.
Fiber supplements must be taken with water; otherwise, they may block the digestive tract. Even when used properly, mild gastrointestinal side effects such as gas and bloating may occur.
Other Proposed Treatments for Weight Loss
The supplement 5-HTP is thought to affect serotonin levels. Because serotonin is thought to play a role in weight regulation, 5-HTP has been investigated as a possible weight-loss aid. A total of four small, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials have been reported.
The first of these, a double-blind crossover study, found that use of 5-HTP (at a daily dose of 8 mg per kilogram body weight) reduced caloric intake despite the fact that the 19 participants made no conscious effort to eat less.44 Participants given placebo consumed about 2,300 calories per day, while those taking 5-HTP ate only 1,800 calories daily. Use of 5-HTP appeared to lead to a significantly enhanced sense of satiety after eating. Over the course of 5 weeks, women taking 5-HTP effortlessly lost more than 3 pounds.
A follow-up study by the same research group enrolled 20 overweight women who were trying to lose weight.45 Participants received either 5-HTP (900 mg per day) or placebo for two consecutive 6-week periods. During the first period, there was no dietary restriction, while during the second participants were encouraged to follow a defined diet expected to lead to weight loss.
Participants receiving placebo did not lose weight during either period. However, those receiving 5-HTP lost about 2% of their initial body weight during the no-diet period, and an additional 3% while on the diet. Thus, a woman with an initial weight of 170 pounds lost about 3-½ pounds after 6 weeks of using 5-HTP without dieting, and another 5 pounds while dieting. Once again, participants taking 5-HTP experienced quicker satiety.
Similar benefits were seen in a double-blind study of 14 overweight women given 900 mg of 5-HTP daily.46
Finally, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 20 overweight individuals with adult-onset diabetes found that use of 5-HTP (750 mg per day) without intentional dieting resulted in about a 4-½ pound weight loss over a 2-week period.47 Use of 5-HTP reduced carbohydrate intake by 75% and fat intake to a lesser extent.
Unfortunately, all these studies were performed by a single research group. In science, results aren't considered valid until they are independently replicated by different researchers. In addition, all these studies were small in size. For these reasons, further research is necessary before we can consider 5-HTP a proven weight-loss agent.
Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a derivative of citric acid, is found primarily in a small, sweet, purple fruit called Garcinia cambogia, the Malabar tamarind. Although animal and test tube studies as well as one human trial suggest that HCA might encourage weight loss, other studies have found no benefit.53-64,119,121 In an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 60 overweight individuals, use of HCA at a dose of 440 mg 3 times daily produced significant weight loss as compared to placebo.119
In contrast, a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 135 overweight individuals, who were given either placebo or 500 mg of HCA 3 times daily, found no effect on body weight or fat mass.62 However, this study has been criticized for using a high-fiber diet, which is thought to impair HCA absorption.120
Other small placebo-controlled studies found HCA had no effect on metabolism, appetite, or weight.63,64,121
The bottom line: It is not yet clear whether Garcinia cambogia is an effective treatment for weight loss.
Caffeine and Ephedrine
Caffeine and ephedrine (found in ephedra, an herb also known as ma huang) are central nervous system stimulants. Considerable evidence suggests ephedrine-caffeine combinations can modestly assist in weight loss.65-69,135,152
For example, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 180 overweight people were placed on a weight-loss diet and given either ephedrine-caffeine (20 mg/200 mg), ephedrine alone (20 mg), caffeine alone (200 mg), or placebo, 3 times daily for 24 weeks.70 The results showed that the ephedrine-caffeine treatment significantly enhanced weight loss, resulting in a loss of more than 36 pounds as compared to only 29 pounds in the placebo group. Neither ephedrine nor caffeine alone produced any benefit. Contrary to some reports, participants did not develop tolerance to the treatment. For the whole 6 months of the trial, the treatment group maintained the same relative weight loss advantage over the placebo group.
While this study only found benefit with caffeine-ephedrine and not with ephedrine alone, other studies have found that ephedrine alone also offers some weight loss benefits.139
We don't know exactly how ephedrine-caffeine works. However, caffeine has actions that cause fat breakdown and enhance metabolism.71 Ephedrine suppresses appetite and increases energy expenditure. The combination appears to produce synergistic effects, with appetite suppression probably the most important overall factor.
Note : Ephedrine presents serious medical risks, and should only be used under physician supervision. In the US, the sale of ephedrine-containing products is banned. See the full Ephedra article for more information.
Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCTs)
Some evidence suggests that MCT consumption might enhance the body's tendency to burn fat.123-125,153 This has led to investigations of MCTs as a weight-loss aid. However, the results of clinical trials thus far have been fairly unimpressive.
In a 4-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 66 women were put on a very low-carbohydrate diet to induce a state called ketosis.126 Half of the women received a liquid supplement containing ordinary fats; the other half received a similar supplement in which the ordinary fats were replaced by MCTs.
The results indicated that the MCT supplement significantly increased the rate of "fat burning" during the first 2 weeks of the trial and also reduced the loss of muscle mass. However, these benefits declined during the last 2 weeks of the trial, which suggests that the effects of MCTs are temporary.
In studies that involved substituting MCTs for ordinary fats in a low calorie diet have shown minimal relative benefits at best.127,128,131,140,154
A related supplement called structured medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (SMLCT) has been created to provide the same potential benefits as MCTs, but in a form that can be used as cooking oil. In a preliminary double-blind trial, SMLCT showed some promise as a “fat-burner.” 137
Other Approaches to Weight Loss
A special type of fat known as diacylglycerol has shown promise as a weight loss aid.80,141,142,237 For example, in a 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 131 overweight men and women were placed on a weight loss diet including, in part, supplementary foods containing either diacylglycerols or ordinary fats.141 The results showed that participants using diacylglycerols lost more weight. Diacylglycerols appear to be safe.155,237
In four preliminary controlled trials, a patented, proprietary blend of fats added to yogurt has shown potential weight-loss benefit.217-220
Korean pine nut oil (PinnoThinac), which is high in free fatty acids (FFA), was shown in one study to reduce the appetite of 42 overweight women compared to olive oil.236
Beans partially interfere with the body's ability to digest carbohydrates, which is why they cause flatulence. Based on this, products containing the French white bean Phaseolus vulgaris have been widely marketed as weight loss aids. However, published studies studies have generally failed to find these "carbohydrate blockers" effective for this purpose.183-185 According to the manufacturer of a current product, more concentrated extracts of phaseolus vulgaris, taken in higher doses, actually can work. Up until recently, the evidence for this claim rested entirely on unpublished studies that could not be independently verified.186-187
In 2007, however, a relevant trial was at last published.212 In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 slightly overweight people were given either placebo or a phaseolus extract once daily 30 minutes prior to a main meal rich in carbohydrates. Over the thirty days of the study, the results indicated that phaseolus treatment led to a significantly greater reduction of body weight and and improvement of lean/fat ratio as compared to placebo.
Some evidence suggests that the supplements creatine158 and colostrum133 may each slightly improve body composition (fat to muscle ratio) as compared to placebo among individuals undergoing an exercise program.
It has been suggested that calcium supplements, or high-calcium diets, may slightly enhance weight loss, but current evidence is more negative than positive.147,156,171-177,219,226,230,234 However, because bones may grow thin during rapid weight loss, it may make sense to take calcium supplements when intentionally losing weight.157 (Interestingly, when weight loss is induced by exercise rather than diet, bone loss does not seem to occur.208)
A 6-month, double-blind study found that the supplement DHEA at a dose of 50 mg daily may help decrease abdominal fat and improve insulin sensitivity (thereby potentially helping to prevent diabetes) in seniors.159 However, another study failed to find DHEA at 40 mg twice daily helpful for weight loss in severely overweight adolescents.87
A supplement related to DHEA, 3-acetyl-7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone (also called 7-oxy or 7-keto-DHEA), has shown a bit of promise for enhancing weight loss.178-179
Results of two small, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies suggest that vitamin C supplements might aid in weight loss.72,73 A related study found that marginal vitamin C deficiency might interfere with deliberate attempts to lose weight.203
A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled 158 moderately overweight volunteers tested a mixture of chromium, cayenne, inulin (a nondigestible carbohydrate), and phenylalanine (an amino acid), as well as other herbs and nutrients.82 All participants lost weight over the 4-week trial. Those using the supplement lost a bit more weight, but the difference was not mathematically significant. However, a bit of positive news came from close examination of results. Among those taking the supplement, a significantly higher percentage of the weight loss came from fat instead of muscle.
One study found benefit with a combination treatment containing niacin-bound chromium combined with Gymnema sylvestre and HCA.160 Yet another study reported weight-loss effects with a combination of HCA, pantothenic acid, chamomile, lavender, damask rose, and the Hawaiian herb Cananga odorata.229
A very small study hints that soy isoflavones might help reduce buildup of abdominal fat.215
Weight-loss benefits were seen in a double-blind trial of 150 overweight people given either placebo or one of two doses of a combination therapy containing chitosan, chromium, and HCA.129 Benefits were also seen in a 45-day double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 44 overweight people that tested a combination product containing yerba mate, guarana, and damiana.130 Minimal benefits at most were seen in a 12 week double-blind study evaluating a combination of asparagus, green tea, black tea, guarana, maté, kidney beans, Garcinia cambogia, and high chromium yeast.206
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of a mixture containing Citrus aurantium (bitter orange), caffeine, and St. John's wort.83Citrus aurantium contains various stimulant chemicals related to nasal spray decongestants. The results suggest that this combination might assist weight loss, but the study was so small (23 participants divided into three groups) that the results mean little.
Ayurvedic herbs have shown some promise for weight loss. In a 3-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 70 overweight individuals were divided into four groups: placebo, Triphala guggul (a mixture of five Ayurvedic ingredients) plus Gokshuradi guggul (a mixture of eight Ayurvedic ingredients), Triphala guggul plus Sinhanad guggul (a mixture of six Ayurvedic herbs), or Triphala guggul plus Chandraprabha vati (a mixture of 36 Ayurvedic ingredients).143 Reportedly, all three Ayurvedic ingredients produced significant weight loss and improvements in cholesterol compared to placebo; furthermore, the improvements produced by each of the treatments were close to identical.
Another study failed to find benefit with the edible cactus Caralluma fimbriata.207
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of different isomers, or chemical forms, of linoleic acid. CLA has been proposed as a fat-burning substance, improving lean to fat mass ratios and reducing total fat mass, but, on balance, the benefit appears to be slight at best.76-79,122,132,134,161-163,202,214,218,228,232 Note: Some but not all studies have raised concerns that use of CLA by overweight people could raise insulin resistance and therefore increase risk of diabetes.164-166,204 In addition, use of CLA might impair endothelial function and levels of C-reactive protein, and thereby increase cardiovascular risk.191,214
A mixture of the herbs of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense is said to help reduce stress-induced overeating, but the only supporting evidence for this claim is a study too small to provide meaningful results.193
The herb Hoodia gordonii, often known simply as "hoodia," has been heavily marketed as a weight loss treatment. However, the evidence that it works is limited to one small unpublished trial funded by the manufacturer.
A rather theoretical study found that two ingredients in green tea may interact to increase metabolism,84 and on this basis green tea became a popular weight control supplement. However, other evidence indicates that if green tea increases metabolism at all, the effect is extremely small.194-195 One study conducted in Thailand reported weight-loss benefits with green tea;235 however, a Dutch study failed to find green tea helpful for preventing weight regain after weight loss.168 In another study, use of green tea failed to produce significant weight loss in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.196
Green tea extract enriched with catechins (an active ingredient in green tea) has done better, enhancing weight loss in one substantial but somewhat flawed trial.227 Oolong tea enriched with green tea catechins found some apparent weight loss benefit.197 However, a study in overweight Japanese children did not support the effectiveness of green tea catechins for weight reduction.238 And, similar results were obtained in another placebo-controlled trial involving 78 overweight women after 12 weeks of treatment.239
An enormous number of other supplements are marketed for weight loss, but without meaningful supporting evidence.
For example, certain supplements are said to be lipotropic, meaning that they help your body metabolize fat or slow down the rate at which it's stored. Vitamins B5 and B6, biotin, choline, inositol, lecithin, and lipoic acid are often placed in this category. However, there is no real evidence that they'll help you lose weight.
A number of amino acids are said to reduce hunger, including phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine, and glutamine. Because the herb kava appears to be helpful for anxiety, it has been proposed as a treatment for mood-related overeating. The antidepressant herb St. John's wort has been recommended with much the same reasoning.
Seaweeds such as kelp, bladderwrack, and sargassi are often added to diet formulas, under the assumption that they will affect the thyroid gland through their iodine content. (An underactive thyroid can cause weight gain.) However, the effect of iodine on thyroid function depends on whether you are iodine deficient. Excess iodine can actually suppress the action of the thyroid. The herb guggul ( Commiphora mukul) is often claimed to enhance thyroid function, and for this reason it is often sold as a weight-loss agent. However there is little evidence that it actually affects the thyroid, and a small double-blind trial found it no more effective than placebo for weight loss.85
Numerous herbs and supplements with potential or known effects on insulin or blood sugar levels are widely added to weight-loss formulas, again, without any evidence that they are effective. These include:
Herbs with laxative or diuretic properties or reputations are also popular in weight-loss formulas, although they are unlikely to produce anything beyond a slight temporary effect. These include barberry, buchu, cascara sagrada bark, cassia powder, cleavers, cornsilk, couchgrass, dandelion root, fig, goldenrod, hydrangea root, juniper berry, peppermint, prune, senna leaf, tamarind, turkey rhubarb root, and uva ursi.
Other herbs and supplements sometimes recommended for weight loss for reasons that are unclear include buckthorn, cayenne, chickweed, coenzyme Q10, cranberry, fennel, flaxseed, ginger, ginkgo, gotu kola, grape seed extract, hawthorn, licorice, milk thistle, parsley, passionflower, plantain, white willow, yellow dock, yucca, and zinc.
Numerous dietary methods have been proposed for aiding weight loss. The Mediterranean diet, which is relatively high in fiber and monounsaturated fats (eg, olive oil) has attracted attention as an effective method for weight management.240 For information on two of the most popular “alternative” diets for weight loss, see the articles on low-carbohydrate diets and low-glycemic index diets. On average, it appears that all dietary weight loss approaches are about equally helpful, provided one sticks to the rules.198-200, 213,220-224,231,244 However, it is possible that a low-GI and the Mediterranean diet are more beneficial than a low-fat diet in people with type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes.220,240
One study found that reducing consumption of high sugar beverages has a minor effect, if any.201
It has often been suggested that adoption of a vegetarian diet enhances weight loss, but this has not been proven.233
References[ + ]
1. Blackburn G. Effect of degree of weight loss on health benefits. Obes Res. 1995;3(suppl 2):211S-216S.
2. Stevens VJ, Obarzanek E, Cook NR, et al. Long-term weight loss and changes in blood pressure: results of the trials of hypertension prevention, phase II. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134:1-11.
3. Felson DT, Zhang Y, Anthony JM, et al. Weight loss reduces the risk for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in women. The Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116:535-539.
4. Goldstein DJ. Beneficial health effects of modest weight loss. Int J Obes. 1992;16:397-415.
5. Solomon CG, Manson JE. Obesity and mortality: a review of the epidemiologic data. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(suppl 4):1044S-1050S.
6. Moore LL, Visioni AJ, Wilson PW, et al. Can sustained weight loss in overweight individuals reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus? Epidemiology. 2000;11:269-273.
7. Kaats GR, Blum K, Fisher JA, et al. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study. Curr Ther Res. 1996;57:747-765.
8. Kaats GR, Blum K, Pullin D, et al. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study of the effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a replication and extension of a previous study. Curr Ther Res. 1998;59:379-388.
9. Grant KE, Chandler RM, Castle AL, et al. Chromium and exercise training: Effect on obese women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997;29:992-998.
10. Trent LK, Thieding-Cancel D. Effects of chromium picolinate on body composition. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1995;35:273-280.
11. Clancy SP, Clarkson PM, DeCheke ME, et al. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition, strength, and urinary chromium loss in football players. Int J Sport Nutr. 1994;4:142-153.
12. Hallmark MA, Reynolds TH, DeSouza CA, et al. Effects of chromium and resistive training on muscle strength and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28:139-144.
13. Amato P, Morales AJ, Yen SS. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, and body composition in healthy, nonobese, older men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000;55:M260-M263.
14. Lukaski HC, Bolonchuk WW, Siders WA, et al. Chromium supplementation and resistance training: effects on body composition, strength, and trace element status of men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:954-964.
21. Stanko RT, Reynolds HR, Hoyson R, et al. Pyruvate supplementation of a low-cholesterol, low-fat diet: effects on plasma lipid concentrations and body composition in hyperlipidemic patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:423-427.
22. Stanko RT, Tietze DL, Arch JE. Body composition, energy utilization, and nitrogen metabolism with a 4.25-MJ/d low-energy diet supplemented with pyruvate. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:630-635.
23. Stanko RT, Arch JE. Inhibition of regain in body weight and fat with addition of 3-carbon compounds to the diet with hyperenergetic refeeding after weight reduction. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996;20:925-930.
24. Stanko RT, Tietze DL, Arch JE. Body composition, energy utilization, and nitrogen metabolism with a severely restricted diet supplemented with dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:771-772.
25. Kalman D, Colker CM, Wilets I, et al. The effects of pyruvate supplementation on body composition in overweight individuals. Nutrition. 1999;15:337-340.
26. Ryttig KR, Tellnes G, Haegh L, et al. A dietary fibre supplement and weight maintenance after weight reduction: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled long-term trial. Int J Obes. 1989;13:165-171.
27. Rigaud D, Ryttig KR, Angel LA, et al. Overweight treated with energy restriction and a dietary fibre supplement: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Obes. 1990;14:763-769.
28. Rossner S, von Zweigbergk D, Ohlin A, et al. Weight reduction with dietary fibre supplements. Results of two double-blind randomized studies. Acta Med Scand. 1987;222:83-88.
29. Walsh DE, Yaghoubian V, Behforooz A. Effect of glucomannan on obese patients: a clinical study. Int J Obes. 1984;8:289-293.
30. Reffo GC, Ghirardi PE, Forattani C. Double-blind evaluation of glucomannan versus placebo in postinfarcted patients after cardiac rehabilitation. Curr Ther Res. 1990;47:753-758.
31. Vido L, Facchin P, Antonello I, et al. Childhood obesity treatment: double blinded trial on dietary fibres (glucomannan) versus placebo. Paediatr Paedol. 1993;28:133-136.
32. Schiller RN, Barrager E, Schauss AG, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examining the effects of a rapidly soluble chitosan dietary supplement on weight loss and body composition in overweight and mildly obese individuals. J Am Nutraceutical Assoc. 2001;4:42-49.
33. Pittler MH, Abbot NC, Harkness EF, et al. Randomized, double-blind trial of chitosan for body weight reduction. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1999;53:379-381.
34. Di Lorenzo C, Williams CM, Hajnal F, et al. Pectin delays gastric emptying and increases satiety in obese subjects. Gastroenterology. 1988;95:1211-1215.
35. Wilmshurst P, Crawley JC. The measurement of gastric transit time in obese subjects using 24Na and the effects of energy content and guar gum on gastric emptying and satiety. Br J Nutr. 1980;44:1-6.
36. Heini AF, Lara-Castro C, Schneider H, et al. Effect of hydrolyzed guar fiber on fasting and postprandial satiety and satiety hormones: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial during controlled weight loss. Int J Obes. 1998;22:906-909.
37. Walsh DE, Yaghoubian V, Behforooz A. Effect of glucomannan on obese patients: a clinical study. Int J Obes. 1984;8:289-293.
38. Reffo GC, Ghirardi PE, Forattani C. Double-blind evaluation of glucomannan versus placebo in postinfarcted patients after cardiac rehabilitation. Curr Res Ther. 1990;47:753-758.
39. Vuksan V, Jenkins DJ, Spadafora P, et al. Konjac-mannan (glucomannan) improves glycemia and other associated risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. A randomized controlled metabolic trial. Diabetes Care. 1999;22:913-919.
40. Ryttig KR, Tellnes G, Haegh L, et al. A dietary fibre supplement and weight maintenance after weight reduction: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled long-term trial. Int J Obes. 1989;13:165-171.
41. Rossner S, von Zweigbergk D, Ohlin A, et al. Weight reduction with dietary fibre supplements. Results of two double-blind randomized studies. Acta Med Scand. 1987;222:83-88.
42. Byerley WF, Judd LL, Reimherr FW, et al. 5-hydroxytryptophan: a review of its antidepressant efficacy and adverse effects. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1987;7:127-137.
43. Poldinger W, Calanchini B, Schwarz W. A functional-dimensional approach to depression: Serotonin deficiency as a target syndrome in a comparison of 5-hydroxytryptophan and fluvoxamine. Psychopathology. 1991;24:53-81.
44. Ceci F, Cangiano C, Cairella M, et al. The effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan administration on feeding behavior in obese adult female subjects. J Neural Transm. 1989;76:109-117.
45. Cangiano C, Ceci F, Cascino A, et al. Eating behavior and adherence to dietary prescriptions in obese adult subjects treated with 5-hydroxytryptophan. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:863-867.
46. Cangiano C, Ceci F, Cairella M, et al. Effects of 5-Hydroxytryptophan on eating behavior and adherence to dietary prescriptions in obese adult subjects. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991;294:591-593.
47. Cangiano C, Laviano A, Del Ben M, et al. Effects of oral 5-hydroxy-tryptophan on energy intake and macronutrient selection in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22:648-654.
51. Chao D, Espeland MA, Farmer D, et al. Effect of voluntary weight loss on bone mineral density in older overweight women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48:753-759.
52. Davies KM, Heaney RP, Recker RR, et al. Calcium intake and body weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:4635-4638.
53. Greenwood MRC, Cleary MP, Gruen R, et al. Effect of hydroxycitrate on development of obesity in the Zucker obese rat. Am J Physiol. 1981;240:E72-E78.
54. Sullivan AC, Triscari J. Metabolic regulation as a control for lipid disorders. Influence of hydroxycitrate on experimentally induced obesity in the rodent. Am J Clin Nutr. 1977;30:767-776.
55. Sullivan AC, Triscari J, Hamilton JG, et al. Effect of hydroxycitrate upon the accumulation of lipid in the rat: I. Lipogenesis. Lipids. 1974;9:121-128.
56. Sullivan AC, Triscari J, Hamilton JG, et al. Effect of hydroxycitrate upon the accumulation of lipid in the rat. II. Appetite. Lipids. 1974;9:129-134.
57. Sergio W. A natural food, malabar tamarind, may be effective in the treatment of obesity. Med Hypotheses. 1988;27:39-40.
58. Lowenstein JM. Effect of hydroxycitrate on fatty acid synthesis by rat liver in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1971;246:629-632.
59. Triscari J, Sullivan AC. Comparative effects of hydroxycitrate and (+)- allo -hydroxycitrate on acetyl CoA carboxylase and fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis in vivo. Lipids. 1977;12:357-363.
60. Cheema-Dhadli S, Harlperin ML, Leznoff CC. Inhibition of enzymes which interact with citrate by hydroxycitrate and 1,2,3,-tricarboxybenzene. Eur J Biochem. 1973;38:98-102.
61. Sullivan AC, Hamilton JG, Miller ON, et al. Inhibition of lipogenesis in rat liver by hydroxycitrate. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1972;150:183-190.
62. Heymsfield SB, Allison DB, Vasselli JR, et al. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1998;280:1596-1600.
63. Kriketos AD, Thompson HR, Greene H, et al. Hydroxycitric acid does not affect energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in adult males in a post-absorptive state. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999;23:867-873.
64. Mattes RD, Bormann L. Effects of hydroxycitric acid on appetitive variables. Physiol Behav. 2000;71:87-94.
65. Astrup A, Breum L, Toubro S, et al. The effect and safety of an ephedrine/caffeine compound compared to ephedrine, caffeine and placebo in obese subjects on an energy restricted diet. A double-blind trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16:269-277.
66. Molnar D, Torok K, Erhardt E, et al. Safety and efficacy of treatment with an ephedrine/caffeine mixture. The first double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study in adolescents. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:1573-1578.
67. Breum L, Pedersen JK, Aglstrom, et al. Comparison of an ephedrine/caffeine combination and dexfenfluramine in the treatment of obesity. A double-blind multi-centre trial in general practice. Int Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994;18:99-103.
68. Boozer CN, Nasser JA, Heymsfield SB, et al. An herbal supplement containing Ma Huang-Guarana for weight loss: a randomized, double-blind trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25:316-324.
69. Norregaard J, Jorgensen S, Mikkelsen KL, et al. The effect of ephedrine plus caffeine on smoking cessation and postcessation weight gain. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996;60:679-686.
70. Astrup A, Breum L, Toubro S, et al. The effect and safety of an ephedrine/caffeine compound compared to ephedrine, caffeine and placebo in obese subjects on an energy restricted diet. A double-blind trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992;16:269-277.
71. Astrup A, Breum L, Toubro S. Pharmacological and clinical studies of ephedrine and other thermogenic agonists. Obes Res. 1995;3:537S-540S.
72. Naylor GJ, et al. A double blind placebo controlled trial of ascorbic acid in obesity. IRCS J Med Sci. 1982;10:25-28.
73. Naylor GJ, Grant L, Smith C. A double blind placebo controlled trial of ascorbic acid in obesity. Nutr Health. 1985;4:25-28.
74. Haslett C, Douglas JG, Chalmers SR, et al. A double-blind evaluation of evening primrose oil as an antiobesity agent. Int J Obes. 1983;7:549-553.
75. Garcia CM, Carter J, Chou A. Gamma linolenic acid causes weight loss and lower blood pressure in overweight patients with family history of obesity. Swed J Biol Med. 1986;4:8-11.
76. Thom E. A pilot study with the aim of studying the efficacy and tolerability of CLA (Tonalin) on the body composition in humans [unpublished]. July 1997.
77. West D. Reduced body fat with conjugated linoleic acid feeding in the mouse [abstract]. FASEB J. 1997;11:A599.
78. Ferreira M, Kreider R, Wilson M, et al. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation during resistance training on body composition and strength [abstract]. J Strength Cond Res. 1997;11:280.
79. Blankson H, Stakkestad JA, Fagertun H, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat mass in overweight and obese humans. J Nutr. 2000;130:2943-2948.
80. Nagao T, Watanabe H, Goto N, et al. Dietary diacylglycerol suppresses accumulation of body fat compared to triacylglycerol in men in a double-blind controlled trial. J Nutr. 2000;130:792-797.
81. Becker EW, Jakober B, Luft D, et al. Clinical and biochemical evaluations of the alga Spirulina with regard to its application in the treatment of obesity. A double-blind cross-over study. Nutr Rep Int. 1986;33:565-574.
82. Hoeger WWK, Harris C, Long EM, et al. Four-week supplementation with a natural dietary compound produces favorable changes in body composition. Adv Ther. 1998;15:305-314.
83. Colker CM, Kalman DS, Torina GC, et al. Effects of Citrus aurantium extract, caffeine, and St. John's wort on body fat loss, lipid levels, and mood states in overweight healthy adults. Curr Ther Res. 1999;60:145-153.
84. Dulloo AG, Seydoux J, Girardier L, et al. Green tea and thermogenesis: interactions between catechin-polyphenols, caffeine and sympathetic activity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:252-258.
85. Antonio J, Colker CM, Torina GC, et al. Effects of a standardized guggulsterone phosphate supplement on body composition in overweight adults: A pilot study. Curr Ther Res. 1999;60:220-227.
86. Villani RG, Gannon J, Self M, et al. L-Carnitine supplementation combined with aerobic training does not promote weight loss in moderately obese women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000;10:199-207.
87. Vogiatzi MG, Boeck MA, Vlachopapadopoulou E, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone in morbidly obese adolescents: effects on weight, body composition, lipids, and insulin resistance. Metabolism. 1996;45:1011-1015.
88. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46:1786-1791.
89. Dibling D, Zemel MB. Chromium picolinate antagonized the lipogenic and antilipolytic effects of insulin in human adipocytes [abstract]. FASEB J. 1998;12:A505.
90. Cheuvront SN. The zone diet and athletic performance. Sports Med. 1999;27:213-228.
91. Coulston AM, Liu GC, Reaven GM. Plasma glucose, insulin and lipid responses to high-carbohydrate low-fat diets in normal humans. Metabolism. 1983;32:52-56.
92. Lefebvre PJ, Luyckx AS. Effect of insulin on glucagon enhanced lipolysis in vitro. Diabetologia. 1969;5:195-197.
93. Jensen MD, Caruso M, Heiling V, et al. Insulin regulation of lipolysis in nondiabetic and IDDM subjects. Diabetes. 1989;38:1595-1601.
94. Howard BV, Savage PJ, Nagulesparan M, et al. Evidence for marked sensitivity to the antilipolytic action of insulin in obese maturity-onset diabetics. Metabolism. 1979;28:744-750.
95. Fraze E, Donner CC, Swislocki AL, et al. Ambient plasma free fatty acid concentrations in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: evidence for insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1985;61:807-811.
96. Sigal RJ, El-Hashimy M, Martin BC, et al. Acute postchallenge hyperinsulinemia predicts weight gain: a prospective study. Diabetes. 1997;46:1025-1029.
97. Olefsky JM, Nolan JJ. Insulin resistance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: cellular and molecular mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61(suppl 4):980S-986S.
98. Eckel RH. Insulin resistance: an adaptation for weight maintenance. Lancet. 1992;340:1452-1453.
99. Volpe SL, Huang HW, Larpadisorn K, et al. Effect of chromium supplementation and exercise on body composition, resting metabolic rate and selected biochemical parameters in moderately obese women following an exercise program. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001;20:293-306.
100. Saydah SH, Loria CM, Eberhardt MS, et al. Subclinical states of glucose intolerance and risk of death in the US. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:447-453.
101. Job FP, Wolfertz J, Meyer R, et al. Hyperinsulinism in patients with coronary artery disease. Coron Artery Dis. 1994;5:487-492.
102. Despres JP, Lamarche B, Mauriege P, et al. Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:952-957.
103. Pyorala K, Savolainen E, Kaukola S, et al. Plasma insulin as coronary heart disease risk factor: relationship to other risk factors and predictive value during 9 1/2-year follow-up of the Helsinki Policemen Study population. Acta Med Scand. 1985;701:38-52.
104. Lamarche B, Tchernof A, Mauriege P, et al. Fasting insulin and apolipoprotein B levels and low-density lipoprotein particle size as risk factors for ischemic heart disease. JAMA. 1998;279:1955-1961.
105. Haffner SM. The importance of hyperglycemia in the nonfasting state to the development of cardiovascular disease. Endocr Rev. 1998;19:583-592.
106. Fontbonne A, Tchobroutsky G, Eschwege E, et al. Coronary heart disease mortality risk: plasma insulin level is a more sensitive marker than hypertension or abnormal glucose tolerance in overweight males. The Paris Prospective Study. Int J Obes. 1988;12:557-565.
107. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 1997;46:1786-1791.
108. Wilson BE, Gondy A. Effects of chromium supplementation on fasting insulin levels and lipid parameters in healthy, non-obese young subjects. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1995;28:179-184.
109. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. Chromium supplementation of human subjects: effects on glucose, insulin, and lipid variables. Metabolism. 1983;32:894-899.
110. Rabinowitz MB, Gonick HC, Levin SR, et al. Effects of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men. Diabetes Care. 1983;6:319-327.
111. Trow LG, Lewis J, Greenwood RH, et al. Lack of effect of dietary chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, plasma insulin and lipoprotein levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2000;70:14-18.
112. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. supplemental-chromium effects on glucose, insulin, glucagon, and urinary chromium losses in subjects consuming controlled low-chromium diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:909-916.
113. Uusitupa MI, Mykkanen L, Siitonen O, et al. Chromium supplementation in impaired glucose tolerance of elderly: effects on blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide and lipid levels. Br J Nutr. 1992;68:209-216.
114. Cefalu WT, Bell-Farrow AD, Stegner J, et al. Effect of chromium picolinate on insulin sensitivity in vivo. J Trace Elem Exp Med. 1999;12:71-83.
115. Kalman D, Colker CM, Stark S, et al. Effect of pyruvate supplementation on body composition and mood. Curr Ther Res. 1998;59:793-802.
116. Rigaud D, Ryttig KR, Angel LA, et al. Overweight treated with energy restriction and a dietary fibre supplement: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Obes. 1990;14:763-769.
117. Birketvedt GS, Aaseth J, Florholmen JR, et al. Long-term effect of fibre supplement and reduced energy intake on body weight and blood lipids in overweight subjects. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove). 2000;43:129-132.
118. Wuolijoki E, Hirvela T, Ylitalo P. Decrease in serum LDL cholesterol with microcrystalline chitosan. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1999;21:357-361.
119. Thom E. Hydroxycitrate (HCA) in the treatment of obesity [abstract]. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1996;20(suppl 4):75.
120. Badmaev V, Majeed M, Conte AA, et al. Garcinia cambogia for weight loss [letter]. JAMA. 1999;282:233-234.
121. Kovacs EM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Saris WH. The effects of 2-week ingestion of (-)-hydroxycitrate and (-)-hydroxycitrate combined with medium-chain triglycerides on satiety, fat oxidation, energy expenditure and body weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25:1087-1094.
122. Smedman A, Vessby B. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in humans—metabolic effects. Lipids. 2001;36:773-781.
123. Seaton TB, Welle SL, Warenko MK, et al. Thermic effect of medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides in man. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986;44:630-634.
124. Scalfi L, Coltorti A, Contaldo F. Postprandial thermogenesis in lean and obese subjects after meals supplemented with medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1130-1133.
125. Baba N, Bracco EF, Hashim SA. Enhanced thermogenesis and diminished deposition of fat in response to overfeeding with diet containing medium chain triglyceride. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982;35:678-682.
126. Krotkiewski M. Value of VLCD supplementation with medium chain triglycerides. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25:1393-1400.
127. Yost TJ, Eckel RH. Hypocaloric feeding in obese women: metabolic effects of medium-chain triglyceride substitution. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;49:326-330.
128. Geliebter A, Torbay N, Bracco EF, et al. Overfeeding with medium-chain triglyceride diet results in diminished deposition of fat. Am J Clin Nutr. 1983;37:1-4.
129. Girola M, de Bernardi M, Contos S, et al. Dose effect in lipid-lowering activity of a new dietary integrator (chitosan, Garcinia cambogia extract, and chrome). Acta Toxicol Ther. 1996;17:25-40.
130. Andersen T, Fogh J. Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation in overweight patients. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2001;14:243-250.
131. Tsuji H, Kasai M, Takeuchi H, et al. Dietary medium-chain triacylglycerols suppress accumulation of body fat in a double-blind, controlled trial in healthy men and women. J Nutr. 2001;131:2853-2859.
132. Thom E, Wadstein J, Gudmundsen O. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat in healthy exercising humans. J Int Med Res. 2001;29:392-396.
133. Antonio J, Sanders MS, Van Gammeren D. The effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in active men and women. Nutr. 2001;17:243-247.
134. Riserus U, Berglund L, Vessby B. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced abdominal adipose tissue in obese middle-aged men with signs of the metabolic syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25:1129-1135.
135. Boozer CN, Daly PA, Homel P, et al. Herbal ephedra/caffeine for weight loss: a 6-month randomized safety and efficacy trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26:593-604.
136. Campbell WW, Joseph LJ, Anderson RA, et al. Effects of resistive training and chromium picolinate on body composition and skeletal muscle size in older women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2002;12:125-135.
137. Matsuo T, Matsuo M, Kasai M, et al. Effects of a liquid diet supplement containing structured medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols on bodyfat accumulation in healthy young subjects. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2001;10:46-50.
138. Pittler MH, Stevinson C, Ernst E. Chromium picolinate for reducing body weight: Meta-analysis of randomized trials. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27:522-529.
139. Shekelle PG, Hardy ML, Morton SC, et al. Efficacy and safety of ephedra and ephedrine for weight loss and athletic performance: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2003;289:1537-1545.
140. St-Onge MP, Ross R, Parsons WD, et al. Medium-chain triglycerides increase energy expenditure and decrease adiposity in overweight men. Obes Res. 2003;11:395-402.
141. Maki KC, Davidson MH, Tsushima R, et al. Consumption of diacylglycerol oil as part of a reduced-energy diet enhances loss of body weight and fat in comparison with consumption of a triacylglycerol control oil. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:1230-1236.
142. Kamphuis MM, Mela DJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Diacylglycerols affect substrate oxidation and appetite in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:1133-1139.
143. Paranjpe P, Patki P, Patwardhan B. Ayurvedic treatment of obesity: a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990;29:1-11.
144. Shafshak TS. Electroacupuncture and exercise in body weight reduction and their application in rehabilitating patients with knee osteoarthritis. Am J Chin Med. 1995;23:15-25.
145. Mok MS, Parker LN, Voina S, et al. Treatment of obesity by acupuncture. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976;29:832-835.
146. Mazzoni R, Mannucci E, Rizzello SM, et al. Failure of acupuncture in the treatment of obesity: a pilot study. Eating Weight Disord. 1999;4:198-202.
147. Barr SI. Increased dairy product or calcium intake: is body weight or composition affected in humans? J Nutr. 2003;133:245S-248S.
148. Allison DB, Faith MS. Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for obesity: a meta-analytic reappraisal. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996;64:513-516.
149. Howarth NC, Saltzman E, McCrory MA, et al. Fermentable and nonfermentable fiber supplements did not alter hunger, satiety or body weight in a pilot study of men and women consuming self-selected diets. J Nutr. 2003;133:3141-3144.
150. Mhurchu CN, Poppitt SD, McGill AT, et al. The effect of the dietary supplement, Chitosan, on body weight: a randomised controlled trial in 250 overweight and obese adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28:1149-1156.
151. Caraccio, TR. Chronic arsenic (As) toxicity from Chitosan supplement [abstract]. Clin Tox. 2002;644.
152. Coffey CS, Steiner D, Baker BA, et al. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of a product containing ephedrine, caffeine, and other ingredients from herbal sources for treatment of overweight and obesity in the absence of lifestyle treatment. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Aug 31. [Epub ahead of print]
153. Beermann C, Jelinek J, Reinecker T, et al. Short term effects of dietary medium-chain fatty acids and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fat metabolism of healthy volunteers. Lipids Health Dis. 2003 Nov 17. [Epub ahead of print]
154. St-Onge MP, Jones PJ. Greater rise in fat oxidation with medium-chain triglyceride consumption relative to long-chain triglyceride is associated with lower initial body weight and greater loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27:1565-1571.
155. Yasunaga K, Glinsmann WH, Seo Y, et al. Safety aspects regarding the consumption of high-dose dietary diacylglycerol oil in men and women in a double-blind controlled trial in comparison with consumption of a triacylglycerol control oil. Food Chem Toxicol. 2004;42:1419-1429.
156. Zemel MB, Thompson W, Milstead A, et al. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Obes Res. 2004;12:582-590.
157. Cifuentes M, Riedt CS, Brolin RE, et al. Weight loss and calcium intake influence calcium absorption in overweight postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:123-130.
158. Branch JD. Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13:198-226.
159. Villareal DT, Holloszy JO. Effect of DHEA on abdominal fat and insulin action in elderly women and men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292:2243-2248.
160. Preuss HG, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, et al. Effects of a natural extract of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) and a combination of HCA-SX plus niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract on weight loss. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2004;6:171-180.
161. Kamphuis MM, Lejeune MP, Saris WH, et al. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation after weight loss on body weight regain, body composition, and resting metabolic rate in overweight subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27:840-847.
162. Malpuech-Brugere C, Verboeket-Van De Venne WP, Mensink RP, et al. Effects of two conjugated linoleic acid isomers on body fat mass in overweight humans. Obes Res. 2004;12:591-598.
163. Gaullier JM, Halse J, Hoye K, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:1118-1125.
164. Larsen TM, Toubro S, Astrup A. Efficacy and safety of dietary supplements containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for the treatment of obesity-evidence from animal and human studies. J Lipid Res. 2003. [Epub ahead of print]
165. Moloney F, Yeow TP, Mullen A, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation, insulin sensitivity, and lipoprotein metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:887-895.
166. Riserus U, Vessby B, Arner P, et al. supplementation with trans10 cis12-conjugated linoleic acid induces hyperproinsulinaemia in obese men: close association with impaired insulin sensitivity. Diabetologia. 2004 May 28. [Epub ahead of print]
167. Lejeune MP, Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM, et al. Effect of capsaicin on substrate oxidation and weight maintenance after modest body-weight loss in human subjects. Br J Nutr. 2003;90:651-660.
168. Kovacs EM, Lejeune MP, Nijs I, et al. Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss. Br J Nutr. 2004;91:431-437.
169. Vogels N, Nijs IM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. The effect of grape-seed extract on 24 h energy intake in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58:667-673.
170. Mhurchu CN, Dunshea-Mooij C, Bennett D, et al. Effect of chitosan on weight loss in overweight and obese individuals: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev. 2005;6:35-42.
171. Lorenzen JK, Molgaard C, Michaelsen KF, et al. Calcium supplementation for 1 y does not reduce body weight or fat mass in young girls. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:18-23.
172. Boon N, Hul GB, Viguerie N, et al. Effects of 3 diets with various calcium contents on 24-h energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and adipose tissue message RNA expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:1244-1252.
173. Gunther CW, Legowski PA, Lyle RM, et al. Dairy products do not lead to alterations in body weight or fat mass in young women in a 1-y intervention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:751-756.
174. Reid IR, Horne A, Mason B, et al. Effects of calcium supplementation on body weight and blood pressure in normal older women: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Apr 12. [Epub ahead of print]
175. Zemel MB, Richards J, Mathis S, et al. Dairy augmentation of total and central fat loss in obese subjects. Int J Obes. 2005;29:391-397.
176. Bowen J, Noakes M, Clifton PM, et al. Effect of calcium and dairy foods in high protein, energy-restricted diets on weight loss and metabolic parameters in overweight adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2005 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print]
177. Zemel MB, Richards J, Milstead A, et al. Effects of calcium and dairy on body composition and weight loss in african-american adults. Obes Res. 2005;13:1218-1225.
178. Kalman DS, Colker CM, Swain MA, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study of 3-acetyl-7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone in healthy overweight adults. Curr Ther Res. 2000;61:435-442.
179. Zenk J, Helmer T, Kassen L, et al. The effects of NaturaLean on weight loss: A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled Trial. Curr Ther Res. 2002;63:263-272.
181. Godard MP, Johnson BA, Richmond SR, et al. Body composition and hormonal adaptations associated with forskolin consumption in overweight and obese men. Obes Res. 2005;13:1335-1343.
182. Greenway FL, Liu Z, Martin CK, et al. Safety and efficacy of NT, an herbal supplement, in treating human obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Apr 25. [Epub ahead of print]
183. Layer P, Zinsmeister AR, DiMagno EP. Effects of decreasing intraluminal amylase activity on starch digestion and postprandial gastrointestinal function in humans. Gastroenterology. 1986;91:41-48.
184. Starch blockers do not block starch digestion. Nutr Rev. 1985;43:46-48.
185. Draeger KE, Vertesy L, Grigoleit HG. Starch blockers. Lancet, 1983;1:354-355.
186. Ballerini R. Summary of clinical study evaluating effectiveness of Phase 2. In vivo effectiveness of a starch absorption blocker in a double-blind placebo-controlled study with normal college-age subjects.
187. Vinson JA, Shuta DM, Al Kharrat H. In vivo effectiveness of a starch absorption blocker in a double-blind placebo-controlled study with normal subjects.
188. Larsen TM, Toubro S, Gudmundsen O, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y does not prevent weight or body fat regain. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:606-612.
189. Taylor JS, Williams SR, Rhys R, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid impairs endothelial function. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Dec 8. [Epub ahead of print].
190. Voevodin M, Sinclair A, Gibson R, et al. The effect of CLA on body composition in humans: systematic review and meta-analysis. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2005;14(suppl):S55.
191. Taylor JS, Williams SR, Rhys R, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid impairs endothelial function. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Dec 8. [Epub ahead of print].
192. Armanini D, Nacamulli D, Francini-Pesenti F, et al. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice, can reduce the thickness of subcutaneous thigh fat through topical application. Steroids. 2005;70:538-542.
193. Garrison R, Chambliss WG. Effect of a proprietary Magnolia and Phellodendron extract on weight management: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Altern Ther Health Med. 2006;12:50-54.
194. Diepvens K, Kovacs EM, Nijs IM, et al. Effect of green tea on resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation during weight loss in overweight females. Br J Nutr. 2005;94:1026-1034.
195. Diepvens K, Kovacs EM, Vogels N, et al. Metabolic effects of green tea and of phases of weight loss. Physiol Behav. 2005 Nov 4. [Epub ahead of print]
196. Chan CC, Koo MW, Ng EH, et al. Effects of Chinese green tea on weight, and hormonal and biochemical profiles in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome—a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2005;13:63-68.
197. Nagao T, Komine Y, Soga S, et al. Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:122-129.
198. Scott CB, Devore R. Diet-induced thermogenesis: variations among three isocaloric meal-replacement shakes. Nutrition. 2005;21:874-877.
199. Peyrebrune MC, Stokes K, Hall GM, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation on training for competition in elite swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37:2140-2147.
200. Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, et al. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2005;293:43-53.
201. Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Osganian SK, et al. Effects of decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight in adolescents: a randomized, controlled pilot study. Pediatrics. 2006;117:673-680.
202. Watras AC, Buchholz AC, Close RN, et al. The role of conjugated linoleic acid in reducing body fat and preventing holiday weight gain. Int J Obes. 2006 Aug 22. [Epub ahead of print]
203. Johnston CS, Corte C, Swan PD. Marginal vitamin C status is associated with reduced fat oxidation during submaximal exercise in young adults. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2006 Aug 31. [Epub ahead of print]
204. Syvertsen C, Halse J, Hoivik HO, et al. The effect of 6 months supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on insulin resistance in overweight and obese. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Oct 10. [Epub ahead of print]
205. Kaats GR, Michalek JE, Preuss HG. Evaluating efficacy of a chitosan product using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled protocol. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006;25:389-394.
206. Opala T, Rzymski P, Pischel I, et al. Efficacy of 12 weeks supplementation of a botanical extract-based weight loss formula on body weight, body composition, and blood chemistry in healthy, overweight subjects—a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Med Res. 2006;11:343-350.
207. Kuriyan R, Raj T, Srinivas SK, et al. Effect of Caralluma Fimbriata extract on appetite, food intake and anthropometry in adult Indian men and women. Appetite. 2006 Nov 9. [Epub ahead of print]
208. Villareal DT, Fontana L, Weiss EP, et al. Bone mineral density response to caloric restriction-induced weight loss or exercise-induced weight loss: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:2502-2510.
209. Keogh JB, Lau CW, Noakes M, et al. Effects of meals with high soluble fibre, high amylose barley variant on glucose, insulin, satiety and thermic effect of food in healthy lean women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Dec 13. [Epub ahead of print]
210. Melanson KJ, Zukley L, Lowndes J, et al. Effects of high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose consumption on circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin and on appetite in normal-weight women. Nutrition. 2007;23:103-112.
211. Lukaski HC, Siders WA, Penland JG. Chromium picolinate supplementation in women: effects on body weight, composition, and iron status. Nutrition. 2007 Feb 7. [Epub ahead of print]
212. Celleno L, Tolaini MV, D'Amore A, et al. A dietary supplement containing standardized Phaseolus vulgaris extract influences body composition of overweight men and women. Int J Med Sci. 2007;4:45-52.
213. Gardner CD, Kiazand A, Alhassan S, et al. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2007;297:969-77.
214. Steck SE, Chalecki AM, Miller P, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans. J Nutr. 2007;137:1188-1193.
215. Sites CK, Cooper BC, Toth MJ, et al. Effect of a daily supplement of soy protein on body composition and insulin secretion in postmenopausal women. Fertil Steril. 2007 Apr 3. [Epub ahead of print]
216. Roberts AT, Martin CK, Liu Z, et al. The safety and efficacy of a dietary herbal supplement and gallic acid for weight loss. J Med Food. 2007;10:184-188.
217. Diepvens K, Soenen S, Steijns J, et al. Long-term effects of consumption of a novel fat emulsion in relation to body-weight management. Int J Obes. 2007 Feb 14. [Epub ahead of print]
218. Whigham LD, Watras AC, Schoeller DA. Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:1203-1211.
219. Caan B, Neuhouser M, Aragaki A, et al. Calcium plus vitamin d supplementation and the risk of postmenopausal weight gain. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:893-902.
220. Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Feldman HA, et al. Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2007;297:2092-2102.
221. Luscombe-Marsh ND, Noakes M, Wittert GA, et al. Carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein are equally effective at promoting fat loss and improving blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:762-772.
222. Petersen M, Taylor MA, Saris WH, et al. Randomized, multi-center trial of two hypo-energetic diets in obese subjects: high-versus low-fat content. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Dec 6. [Epub ahead of print]
223. Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, et al. Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA. 2005;294:2455-2464.
224. Nordmann AJ, Nordmann A, Briel M, et al. Effects of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:285-293.
225. Diaz ML, Watkins BA, Li Y, et al. Chromium picolinate and conjugated linoleic acid do not synergistically influence diet- and exercise-induced changes in body composition and health indexes in overweight women. J Nutr Biochem. 2007 May 23. [Epub ahead of print]
226. Kabrnova-Hlavata K, Hainer V, Gojova M, et al. Calcium intake and the outcome of short-term weight management. Physiol Res. 2007 May 30. [Epub ahead of print]
227. Nagao T, Hase T, Tokimitsu I. A green tea extract high in catechins reduces body fat and cardiovascular risks in humans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15:1473-83.
228. Laso N, Brugue E, Vidal J, et al. Effects of milk supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) on body composition and metabolic syndrome components. Br J Nutr. 2007 Jul 11. [Epub ahead of print]
229. Toromanyan E, Aslanyan G, Amroyan E, et al. Efficacy of Slim339® in reducing body weight of overweight and obese human subjects. Phytother Res. 2007 Jul 18. [Epub ahead of print]
230. Winzenberg T, Shaw K, Fryer J, et al. Calcium supplements in healthy children do not affect weight gain, height, or body composition. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15:1789-1798.
231. Sichieri R, Moura AS, Genelhu V, et al. An 18-mo randomized trial of a low-glycemic-index diet and weight change in Brazilian women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:707-713.
232. Close RN, Schoeller DA, Watras AC et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation alters the 6-mo change in fat oxidation during sleep. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:797-804.
233. Burke LE, Hudson AG, Warziski MT, et al. Effects of a vegetarian diet and treatment preference on biochemical and dietary variables in overweight and obese adults: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:588-596.
234. Wagner G, Kindrick S, Hertzler S, et al. Effects of various forms of calcium on body weight and bone turnover markers in women participating in a weight loss program. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007;26:456-461.
235. Auvichayapat P, Prapochanung M, Tunkamnerdthai O, et al. Effectiveness of green tea on weight reduction in obese Thais: A randomized, controlled trial. Physiol Behav. 2007 Oct 18. [Epub ahead of print]
236. Hughes GM, Boyland EJ, Williams NJ, et al. The effect of Korean pine nut oil (PinnoThinac) on food intake, feeding behaviour and appetite. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lipids Health Dis. 2008 Feb 28.
237. Li D, Xu T, Takase H, et al. Diacylglycerol-induced improvement of whole-body insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A long-term randomized, double-blind controlled study. Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb 29.
238. Matsuyama T, Tanaka Y, Kamimaki I, et al. Catechin safely improved higher levels of fatness, blood pressure, and cholesterol in children. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 March 20.
239. Hsu CH, Tsai TH, Kao YH, et al. Effect of green tea extract on obese women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clin Nutr. 2008 May 9.
240. Shai I, Schwarzfuchs D, Henkin Y, et al. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:229-241.
241. Jull AB, Ni Mhurchu C, Bennett DA, Dunshea-Mooij CA, Rodgers A. Chitosan for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;CD003892.
242. Anton SD, Morrison CD, Cefalu WT, et al. Effects of chromium picolinate on food intake and satiety. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2008;10:405-412.
243. Yazaki Y, Faridi Z, Ma Y, et al. A pilot study of chromium picolinate for weight loss. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Mar;16(3):291.
244. Iqbal N, Vetter ML, Moore RH, et al. Effects of a low-intensity intervention that prescribed a low-carbohydrate vs. a low-fat diet in obese, diabetic participants. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18(9):1733-1738.
Last reviewed July 2012 by EBSCO CAM Review Board
Last Updated: 7/25/2012