by Maria Adams, MS, MPH, RD
What Is Lactose?
Lactose is a type of carbohydrate found in milk and milk products. It is sometimes referred to as milk-sugar. Lactose is broken down in the small intestines by the enzyme lactase.
Why Should I Follow a Lactose-Controlled Diet? TOP
If you are lactose intolerant, your body is unable to digest large amounts of lactose. Consuming lactose may result in symptoms such as gas, bloating, cramping, and diarrhea. Reducing the amount of lactose in your diet will prevent or reduce these symptoms.
Lactose intolerance usually occurs when there is a shortage of the lactase enzyme. It can also occur with diseases or injuries that affect the small intestines.
Lactose-Controlled Diet Basics TOP
The goal of this diet is to reduce any lactose-induced symptoms to a point where they are not bothersome. The amount of lactose that is tolerated will vary from person to person. You may find it helpful to keep a log of the foods that you eat and any symptoms that you have.
Common Sources of Lactose
Lactose is found in all dairy products. Some products contain more lactose than others. This carbohydrate can also be an ingredient in other types of food. To determine whether a food contains lactose, look for the following key words on the ingredient list:
The following foods generally contain no lactose:
Low Lactose Foods TOP
The following foods contain only small amounts of lactose (2 grams or less per serving) and can often be tolerated in small amounts:
Finding Your Level of Dairy Tolerance TOP
Before cutting dairy products out completely, try cutting back. Milk is usually better tolerated in small amounts (4 ounces or less at a time) and when consumed with food. Cultured dairy products, such as yogurt and kefir, are often well-tolerated because they contain bacteria that help break down the lactose. Aged cheeses, such as cheddar and Swiss, which contain low amounts of lactose, are also usually well-tolerated.
Alternatives to Milk TOP
Alternatives to regular milk include lactose-reduced and lactose-free milk. Nondairy alternatives include soy milk and rice milk.
Lactase enzyme tablets can also be taken when milk and milk products are eaten. These over the counter tablets contain the enzyme needed to digest the lactose.
Nutritional Concerns TOP
Dairy products are an excellent source of calcium. Milk is also fortified with vitamin D, which is necessary for your body to use calcium. If you cut back on or eliminate these products, be sure you are getting these nutrients elsewhere. Good sources of calcium include fortified orange juice, fortified breakfast cereals, canned fish with bones, and tofu. Good sources of vitamin D include salmon, mackerel, egg yolks, and sunlight.
Suggestions on Eating a Lactose-Controlled Diet TOP
American Gastroenterological Association
Eat Right—Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Dietary guidelines for Americans 2015-2020. Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/. Accessed May 5, 2017.
Lactose intolerance. American Gastroenterological Association website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated July 2016. Accessed May 5, 2017.
Lactose intolerance. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at:
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Updated July 2014. Accessed May 5, 2017.
Lactose intolerance in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dyname.... Updated November 17, 2016. Accessed May 5, 2017.
Last reviewed May 2017 by Dianne Scheinberg Rishikof MS, RD, LDN
Last Updated: 11/17/2014
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