by Cynthia M. Johnson, MA
Menopause is when a woman has not had a menstrual period for 1 year. It is called early menopause when it happens before age 40.
Periods happen when estrogen and progresterone hormones lower. The ovaries release these hormones. The ovaries stop releasing eggs when there hormones are too low.
Surgery to remove the uterus or ovaries can also cause menopause.
Risk Factors TOP
This is a normal part of aging. It is most common in women who are 40-58 years of age.
When it happens early, risk factors are:
You may not have symptoms.
If you do, they happen in the time leading up to menopause. You may have:
Your doctor will ask you about your periods. Menopause is when a woman has not had a period for 1 year.
A blood test to look for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) may be done to confirm the diagnosis. High levels of FSH suggest menopause.
Menopause is a normal part of life. It doesn't need treatment.
Hormone changes can cause symptoms. Certain treatments and lifestyle changes can help.
Your risk of heart disease or osteoporosisis higher without hormones. Lifestyle changes can help lower your risk.
Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
HRT can be used for a short time. Here are some options:
HRT can be taken as tablets, gels, skin patches, vaginal rings or tablets, injections, and pellets placed in the skin.
HRT can raise the risk problems like cancer, heart disease, and blood clots. Talk to your doctor about whether the benefits are greater than the risks.
HRT is not a good choice for some women. Here are other options:
Lifestyle Changes TOP
A healthful diet may reduce some of your symptoms. It can help you feel better. It can also lower the risk of heart disease and osteoporosis. You should eat:
You should also have calcium and vitamin Dfor healthy bones. Milk and yogurt are high in calcium. Fish is high in vitamin D. Ask your doctor if supplements are needed. Sunlight also raises vitamin D in the body.
Try not to eat spicy or hot foods or drinks. They can make hot flashes worse.
Exercise may lower symptoms, manage weight, and lower stress. Weight-bearing exercises like walking and strength exercises may also help keep bones healthy. A mix of both works best.
Menopause is natural. You can’t prevent it.
Office on Women's Health
The North American Menopause Society
Women's Health Matters—Women's College Hospital
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Last reviewed April 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Marcie L. Sidman, MD
Last Updated: 5/23/2018
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