Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by an excess of growth hormone (GH). GH controls the growth of soft tissue and bone. Elevated GH causes an excess of bone and soft tissue growth. It can cause serious complications and early death if not treated.
In young children, bone growth is still occurring. Excess GH can cause a similar condition called gigantism. Gigantism causes dramatic growth in children.
The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain. It produces many hormones, including GH.
In most cases, the elevation of GH is caused by a benign tumor of this gland. In a small number of cases, cancerous tumors of other organs, such as the pancreas, adrenal, or lung, may be the source of excess GH.
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
Acromegaly is more common in people aged 40-45 years old. Family history of acromegaly may rarely increase your risk of this condition.
Symptoms usually develop slowly over time.
In children, the bones grow longer and cause soft tissue swelling. If not treated, children can grow to a height of 7-8 feet.
Symptoms and complications in adults may include:
Abnormally large growth and deformity of the:
- Hands—rings no longer fit
- Feet—need a bigger size shoe
- Face—bulging of brow and lower jaw
- Jaw—teeth do not line up correctly when the mouth is closed
Skin changes, such as:
- Thickened, oily, and sometimes darkened skin
- Severe acne
- Excessive sweating and unpleasant body order due to enlargement of the sweat glands
- Deepening voice due to enlarged sinuses, vocal cords, and soft tissues of the throat
- Difficulty sleeping due to a blocked airway
- Swelling in the neck
- Fatigue and weakness in the legs and arms
- Joint pain, especially in the jaw
- Irregular menstrual cycles
- Abnormal production of breast milk
- In men— erectile dysfunction
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. It is helpful for the doctor to have pictures of yourself when you were younger. A physical exam will be done. Acromegaly is often not diagnosed until years after it begins.
You will have blood tests.
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:
The goals of treatment are to:
- Reduce production of GH to normal levels
- Stop and reverse the symptoms caused by excess GH
- Correct other endocrine abnormalities, such as thyroid, adrenal, and sex organs
- Reduce tumor size
Treatment may include:
The tumor that is believed to be causing acromegaly may be removed. In most cases, this is the preferred treatment. However, drug treatment is increasing in popularity.
In adults, external beams of radiation are used to shrink the tumor. It is most often used when surgery cannot be used or when medications have failed.
Medications may be given to:
- Reduce the level of GH
- Shrink the tumor before surgery
There are no current guidelines to prevent acromegaly. Early treatment will help to prevent serious complications.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Pituitary Network Association
Canadian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Abrams P, Alexopoulou O, Abs R, Maiter D, Verhelst J. Optimalization and cost management of lanreotide-Autogel therapy in acromegaly. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007;157(5):571-577.
Acromegaly. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116280/Acromegaly. Updated October 30, 2015. Accessed February 26, 2018.
Glustina A, Barkan A, Casanueva FF, et al. Criteria for cure of acromegaly: a consensus statement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(2):526-529.
Katznelson L, Atkinson JL, Cook DM, et al. American association of clinical endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly—2011 update: executive summary. Endocr Pract. 2011;17(4):636-646.
Melmed S, Casanueva FF, Cavagnini F, et al. Acromegaly treatment consensus workshop participants: guidelines for acromegaly management. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(9):4054-4058.
Melmed S. Medical progress: acromegaly. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(24):2558-2573.
Paisley AN, Trainer PJ. Medical treatment in acromegaly. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2003;3(6):672-677.
Sherlock M, Woods C, Sheppard MC. Medical therapy in acromegaly. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011;7(5):291-300.
Trainer PJ, Drake WM, Katznelson L, et al. Treatment of acromegaly with the growth hormone-receptor antagonist pegvisomant. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(16):1171-1177.
Last reviewed March 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Alan Drabkin, MD Last Updated: 2/17/2016