Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder. It results from using medicines used to treat psychiatric problems, like schizophrenia. TD causes repeating movements you cannot control. They may affect the face, limbs, or trunk.
It is treated with medicine. Medicines that cause TB may be stopped or changed. Some supplements may also lower the risk of problems. Some people may benefit from deep brain stimulation if other methods do not help.
May Be Effective
These therapies may provide benefit:
- Branched-chain amino acids are essential nutrients found in foods and available in supplements.A1
- Ginkgo biloba is a tree.B1-B4
- Melatonin is a hormone made by the body that helps with the sleep-wake cycle. It is available as a supplement.C1-C3
- Vitamin B6 is found in foods and helps enzymes work in the body.D1
May Not Be Effective
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an omega-3 fatty acid found in cold-water fatty fish. It is also available in supplements.G1
Not Enough Data to Assess
- Vitamin E F1-F2
Editorial process and description of evidence categories can be found at EBSCO NAT Editorial Process.
Herbs and Supplements to Be Used With Caution
Talk to your doctor about all herbs or supplements you are taking. Some may interact with your treatment plan or health conditions. Some supplements discussed here have certain concerns such as:
- Branched-chain amino acids may interfere with Parkinson disease medicines.
- Ginkgo biloba may interact harmfully with many commonly prescribed medicines.
- Vitamin B6 in high doses may result in nerve damage.
- Vitamin E in excessive amounts may cause problems for people who take blood thinners, are diabetic, or are taking chemotherapy for cancer treatment.
Branched-chain Amino Acids
A1. Richardson MA1, Bevans ML, et al. Efficacy of the branched-chain amino acids in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia in men. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160(6):1117-1124.
B1. Zhang WF, Tan YL, Zhang XY, Chan RC, Wu HR, Zhou DF. Extract of Ginkgo biloba treatment for tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72(5):615-621.
B2. Zheng W, Xiang YQ, Ng CH, Ungvari GS, Chiu HF, Xiang YT. Extract of Ginkgo biloba for tardive dyskinesia: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. 2016;49(3):107-111.
B3. Soares-Weiser K, Rathbone J, et al. Miscellaneous treatments for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 19;3:CD000208.
B4. Bhidayasiri R, Jitkritsadakul O, et al. Updating the recommendations for treatment of tardive syndromes: A systematic review of new evidence and practical treatment algorithm. J Neurol Sci. 2018 Jun 15;389:67-75.
C1. Shamir E, Barak Y, Plopsky I, Zisapel N, Elizur A, Weizman A. Is melatonin treatment effective for tardive dyskinesia? J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61(8):556-568.
C2. Shamir E, Barak Y, Shalman I, et al. Melatonin treatment for tardive dyskinesia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58(11):1049-1052.
C3. Castro F, Carrizo E, Prieto de Rincón D et al. Effectiveness of melatonin in tardive dyskinesia. Invest Clin. 2011;52(3):252-260.
D1. Adelufosi AO, Abayomi O, Ojo TM. Pyridoxal 5 phosphate for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(4):CD010501.
E1. Bergman H, Walker DM, et al. Systematic review of interventions for treating or preventing antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Health Technol Assess. 2017 Aug;21(43):1-218.
F1. Soares-Weiser K, Maayan N, Bergman H. Vitamin E for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;1:CD000209. F2. Pham DQ, Plakogiannis R. Vitamin E supplementation in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, tardive dyskinesia, and cataract: Part 2. Ann Pharmacother. 2005 Dec;39(12):2065-72.
G1. Emsley R, Niehaus DJ, et al. The effects of eicosapentaenoic acid in tardive dyskinesia: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Schizophr Res. 2006 May;84(1):112-120.
Last reviewed December 2019 by EBSCO NAT Review Board Eric Hurwitz, DC Last Updated: 6/26/2020