(Breast Surgery; Surgery for Breast Cancer; Surgery to Remove a Breast)
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A mastectomy is surgery to remove breast tissue. There are 2 types:
- Lumpectomy —The tumor and some normal tissue around it are taken out.
- Partial mastectomy—Part of the breast that has cancer and some normal tissue around it are taken out. The lymph nodes or the lining of the chest muscle may also be taken out.
Breast-tissue removal mastectomy types:
- Simple—The whole breast is taken out. This includes the nipple and areola.
- Skin-sparing—The skin that covers the breast is left except for the nipple and areola. This is like a simple mastectomy. It is done when reconstruction is planned. It has limits and may not be a choice for all women.
- Modified radical—The whole breast, some lymph nodes in the armpit, and any affected chest muscles are taken out.
- Radical—The whole breast, lymph nodes, and muscles of the chest wall are taken out (rare).
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Reasons for Procedure
A mastectomy is done to:
- Treat breast cancer —removes cancer cells and any affected tissue
- Prevent breast cancer—removes one or both breasts in women with a high risk of getting cancer
- Treat side effects from a past treatment—some people who have immune system problems may not be able to have radiation therapy
Problems are rare, but all surgeries have some risk. Your doctor will go over problems that may happen, such as:
- Bleeding and bruising
- Seroma—build up of clear fluid in the cut
- Lymphedema —swelling of the arm caused by a build up of fluid in lymph nodes
- Poor arm and shoulder movement
- Numbness of skin on upper arm
- Burning or stabbing pain
Some factors that may raise the risk of problems are:
What to Expect
Prior to Procedure
Your doctor may do blood and urine tests. Before surgery:
- Talk to your doctor about your medicines and supplements. You may be asked to stop taking some medicines up to 1 week before surgery.
- Arrange for a ride home.
- Eat a light meal the night before. Do not eat or drink after midnight.
You will have general anesthesia. It will block pain and keep you asleep during the procedure.
Description of the Procedure
For breast-conserving surgery, a cut is made at the site of the tumor. The tumor is taken out. A small bit of normal tissue around it is also taken out.
For breast-tissue removal surgery, the whole breast and fatty tissue are taken out. The doctor may also need to remove lymph nodes and some chest muscles. Tissue that is taken out is studied under a microscope. If you have skin-sparing surgery, the skin around the breast will be kept.
The doctor will place a tube to drain blood and fluids. The site will be closed with stitches.
How Long Will It Take?
1 to 3 hours
Will It Hurt?
Anesthesia will prevent pain during surgery. You will be given medicine for pain after surgery.
Average Hospital Stay
1 to 3 days
At the Hospital
You will be in a room where your blood pressure, pulse, and breathing will be checked. Recovery may also mean:
- Pain medicines
- Antibiotics to prevent infection
- Medication to prevent blood clots
- Getting out of bed and moving around within 24 hours of your surgery
If you had cancer and it has spread, chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be needed.
Activity will be limited for a few days to a few weeks based on surgery. Exercises may be given if lymph nodes were removed.
Prosthetic breast or reconstruction may be available for those who are interested.
Call Your Doctor
Call your doctor if you are not getting better or you have problems such as:
- New signs of infection, such as fever and chills
- Increased redness, swelling, increasing pain, excessive bleeding, or discharge from the site
- Cough, breathing problems, or chest pain
- Nausea and vomiting
- Redness, warmth, swelling, stiffness, or hardness in the arm or hand on the side of the body where the lymph nodes were taken out
- New or worsening pain and swelling in your feet, calves, or legs
- Lumps or skin changes in the tissue that is left on mastectomy side
- Lumps, skin changes, or nipple drainage in remaining breast
- Symptoms of depression that last at least 2 weeks or longer
If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.
Canadian Cancer Society
Women's Health Matters—Women's College Hospital
Axillary lymph nodes. Breast Cancer website. Available at: http://www.breastcancer.org/pictures/breast_anatomy/axillary_lymph_nodes. Accessed December 18, 2020.
Breast cancer in women. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113654/Breast-cancer-in-women. Accessed December 18, 2020.
Surgery for breast cancer. American Cancer Society. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer/treatment/surgery-for-breast-cancer.html. Accessed December 18, 2020.
Surgery for early and locally advanced breast cancer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T901192/Surgery-for-early-and-locally-advanced-breast-cancer. Accessed December 18, 2020.
Treatments & side effects. Breast Cancer website. Available at: http://www.breastcancer.org/treatment. Accessed December 18, 2020.
Last reviewed November 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Donald W. Buck II, MD