Huntington disease (HD) is a genetic problem of the brain. It causes the body to move in ways that the person cannot control. It also causes thinking problems that get worse over time.
HD is caused by a faulty gene. All people who inherit the faulty gene may get HD.
The chance of getting HD is higher in those who have people in their family who have it.
Problems often start between 30 to 50 years of age. They are mild at first before they get worse.
Problems may be:
- Changes in eye movements
- Moving without control
- Jerking movements of the arms, legs, face, or belly
- Problems making decisions
- Lack of emotion
- Mood swings
- Problems walking and swallowing
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. You will be asked whether you have other people in your family with HD. A physical exam will be done. Cognitive tests may also be done.
Blood tests will be done to look for the faulty gene.
Images may be taken to support the diagnosis. This can be done with:
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There is no cure for HD. Symptoms can only be managed.
Medicine may be given to ease body movements. These may be:
Counseling and support groups can help a person learn how to cope with HD.
HD cannot be prevented in a person who has the faulty gene.
Hereditary Disease Foundation
Huntington Disease Society of America
Huntington Society of Canada
Armstrong MJ, Miyasaki JM. Evidence-based guideline: pharmacologic treatment of chorea in Huntington disease: report of the guideline development subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2012 Aug 7;79(6):597-603.
Fast facts about HD. Huntington's Disease Society of America website. Available at: http://hdsa.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/HDSA_Fast-Facts.pdf?23ef42. Accessed October 18, 2019.
Huntington disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:https://www.dynamed.com/condition/huntington-disease. Updated July 24, 2018. Accessed October 18, 2019.
Huntington's disease information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/huntington/huntington.htm. Updated March 27, 2019. Accessed October 18, 2019.
Kringlen G, Kinsley L, et al. The Impact of Family History on the Clinical Features of Huntington's Disease. J Huntingtons Dis. 2017;6(4):327-335.
Last reviewed September 2019 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Rimas Lukas, MD Last Updated: 8/26/2020