A meniscal tear is a tear in the meniscus. The meniscus is cartilage, which acts as a shock-absorbing structure in the knee. There are 2 menisci in each knee, a medial one on the inside, and a lateral one on the outside.
There are different types of tears depending on the location and how they look. Treatment depends on the severity of the tear.
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Most injuries to the meniscus are caused by trauma. This usually includes compression and twisting of the knee. Because the aging process breaks down the inner tissues of the meniscus, minor trauma can injure the meniscus in an older adult.
Risk Factors ^
Older adults and men are at increased risk. Factors that may increase your risk of:
- Occupations that involve kneeling and squatting
- Climbing stairs
- Previous knee injuries
- Participating in contact sports, such as soccer or rugby
- Poor techniques for jumping, landing, pivoting, and cutting
Symptoms may include:
- A popping sound at the time of the injury
- Pain and swelling in the knee
- Tightness in the knee
- Locking up, catching, or giving way of the knee
- Tenderness in the joint
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your knee may need to be viewed. This can be done with:
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Recovery time ranges depend on the severity of your injury. Treatment steps may include:
The knee will need time to heal. Supportive care may include:
- Rest—Activities may need to be restricted at first. Normal activities will be gradually resumed as the injury heals.
- Ice—Ice therapy may help relieve swelling. You may be advised to use heat as you begin to return to normal activities.
- Compression—Compression bandages can provide gentle pressure to help move fluids out of the area.
- Elevation—Keeping the knee elevated can help fluids drain or prevent them from building up
- A knee brace to stabilize the knee
- Crutches to keep extra weight off of the leg
Over-the-counter or prescription medication may be advised to reduce pain.
A physical therapist will assess the knee. An exercise program will be created to help recovery and to stretch and strengthen the muscles.
Repair or removal of all or part of the damaged meniscus may by done. This is usually done through small incisions of the skin. A camera and special tools are inserted through the incisions.
To reduce your chances of a meniscal tear, take these steps:
- Maintain proper technique when exercising or playing sports.
- Wear appropriate footwear for your sport and playing surface.
- Strengthen both the quadriceps and the hamstrings.
- Consider wearing a knee brace for sports.
American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine
Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Canadian Orthopaedic Association
Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation
Knee sprains and meniscal tears. Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/injuries_poisoning/fractures_dislocations_and_sprains/knee_sprains_and_meniscal_injuries.html. Updated August 2017. Accessed March 27, 2018.
Meniscal tears. Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases--conditions/meniscus-tears/. Updated March 2014. Accessed March 27, 2018.
Meniscus tears. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116776/Meniscus-tears. Updated June 19, 2017. Accessed March 27, 2018
Torn meniscus. Johns Hopkins Medicine website. Available at: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/orthopaedic_disorders/torn_meniscus_85,P00945. Accessed March 27, 2018.
04/24/2014 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance.http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116776/Meniscus-tears: Snoeker BA, Bakker EW, et al. Risk factors for meniscal tears: a systematic review including meta-analysis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013; 43(6):352-367.
Last reviewed March 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Teresa Briedwell, PT, DPT Last Updated: 4/24/2014