(Primary Sjogren Syndrome; Secondary Sjogren Syndrome)
Sjogren syndrome is an inflammatory disease. The immune system destroys cells in exocrine glands. It occurs most often in the tear and salivary glands. It is a lifelong condition. There are 2 types:
- Primary Sjogren syndrome—occurs alone
- Secondary Sjogren syndrome—occurs with other rheumatic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, or lupus
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The causes of Sjogren are unknown. Contributing factors may include:
- Viral infections
- Environmental factors
Women and people between the ages of 40-60 years old are at increased risk. Factors that increase your risk for Sjogren include:
- Other rheumatic or autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus
- Certain genetic markers
Symptoms may include:
- Red, burning, itching, and/or dry eyes
- Dry mouth
- Difficulty swallowing
- Loss of taste and smell
- Dry skin, nose, throat, and/or lungs
- Dental problems
- Swollen salivary glands
- Vaginal dryness
- Skin rashes
- Joint pain, swelling, and stiffness
- Muscle pain
In some cases, other parts of the body are affected as well. These include:
- Blood vessels
- The nervous system
- Organs such as the lungs, liver, pancreas, kidneys, and thyroid
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You may be referred to a specialist. You may also be referred to a dentist for an exam.
Your bodily fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:
- Blood tests
- Lip biopsy
- Urine tests—to check the protein levels in your urine
Your eyes may be tested. This can be done with:
- Schirmer test to measure tear production
- Slit-lamp examination
Images may also be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:
- Chest x-ray.
- Ultrasound of the salivary glands
There is no cure for Sjogren syndrome. No treatment can restore the ability of the glands to produce moisture. The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms.
You may be given medications to relieve:
- Joint and muscle pain
- Inflammation and swelling
Lifestyle changes may help to relieve symptoms. These include:
- Exercise to relieve stiffness in the joints
- Sipping liquids and sucking on sugar-free candies to relieve dryness
- Good oral hygiene and regular dental checkups
- Using unscented moisturizers to help relieve dry skin
There are no guidelines for preventing Sjogren syndrome. The cause is unknown.
American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association
Sjogren's Syndrome Foundation
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7/7/2014 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillancehttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116074/Sjogren-syndrome: Liang Y, Yang Z, et al. Primary Sjogren's syndrome and malignancy risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Jun;73(6):1151-1156.
11/9/2015 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillancehttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116074/Sjogren-syndrome: Kuo CF, Grainge MJ, Valdes AM, et al. Familial aggregation of systemic lupus erythematosus and coaggregation of autoimmune diseases in affected families. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(9):1518-1526.
2/22/2017 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillancehttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116074/Sjogren-syndrome: Luciano N, Baldini, Tarantini G, et al. Ultrasonography of major salivary glands: a highly specific tool for distinguishing primary Sjögren's syndrome from undifferentiated connective tissue diseases. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2015;54(12):2198-2204.
Last reviewed November 2018 by Kari Kassir, MD Last Updated: 2/22/2017