Carotid artery stenosis occurs when the carotid arteries narrow. The carotid arteries are major arteries found on each side of the neck. They supply blood from the heart to the brain.
This condition is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke is when blood flow to the brain is blocked due to blood clots.
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Carotid artery stenosis is caused by the build-up of plaque along the lining of the arteries. This build-up is known as atherosclerosis. Plaque is made up of cholesterol, fat, and other substances.
Carotid artery stenosis is more common in men aged 75 or younger and women aged 75 or older. Risk factors include:
There are usually no symptoms. Tell your doctor if you have symptoms of a stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA or mini-stroke). This is a warning sign that you may have carotid artery stenosis. Symptoms may include:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Images may be needed of your internal structures. This can be done with:
The goal of treatment is to prevent carotid artery stenosis from causing inadequate blood flow to the brain or causing a stroke. Treatment will depend on:
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:
If there are no symptoms and if plaque build-up is not severe, medications like aspirin may be given to help prevent a stroke from occurring. Lifestyle changes are also an important part of treatment. Some actions you can take to reduce your risk of stroke include:
Surgery may be needed if the arteries have severe plaque build-up. One kind of surgery is called carotid endarterectomy. This involves opening the artery and cleaning the plaque from it. Another surgery that may be done is carotid angioplasty and stenting. In this surgery, a balloon is inserted into the artery to widen it. Then a metal mesh, called a stent, is inserted to keep the artery open so that blood can flow freely.
To help reduce your chance of getting carotid artery stenosis, you will need to decrease the risk factors that you can control. For example, you can reduce your cholesterol, blood pressure, and weight. Here are some steps to decrease these risk factors:
American Heart Association
National Stroke Association
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
Buckley L, Schub T. Carotid stenosis. EBSCO Nursing Reference Center website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/nursing/products/nursing-reference-center. Updated April 3, 2015. Accessed March 1, 2016
Carotid artery stenosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 29, 2015. Accessed March 1, 2016.
Last reviewed March 2016 by Michael J. Fucci, DO, FACC Last Updated: 5/2/2014