Conditions InDepth: Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is a disorder usually caused by autoimmune destruction of the insulin secreting cells of the pancreas, resulting in the body’s inability to produce sufficient insulin to meet bodily needs. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that allows the body to use sugar (glucose) for energy. Without insulin, glucose from the carbohydrate foods you eat cannot enter cells. This causes glucose to build up in the blood, leaving your body cells and tissues starved for energy. While a variety of tissue transplantation techniques are under development and some genetically-based treatments have been proposed, at this point in time, the only widely-available treatments for type 1 diabetes are the injection of insulins and inhaled insulin.

How Type 1 Diabetes Occurs

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The American Diabetes Association estimates that 500,000 to 1 million people in the United States have type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually begins in childhood and young adulthood between 8-12 years of age. It was previously called juvenile diabetes, but the name was changed to type 1 diabetes mellitus since adults, as well as children, can develop this disease. The latter is then called latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood (LADA).

In the United States, type 1 diabetes is one of the most frequently diagnosed chronic diseases of children. According to the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International, each year approximately 30,000 Americans are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, over 13,000 of whom are children—35 children every day.

Type 1 diabetes is caused by the attack and destruction of insulin-producing cells (beta cells) in the pancreas by the body's immune system. In people who may be genetically predisposed to this disease, exposure to factors in the environment may trigger the immune system response. The exact cause remains unknown. The trigger may be a virus, a food, a chemical, or a drug.

Type 1 diabetes may also develop because of other medical conditions. It may develop in:

The key to controlling diabetes is maintaining your blood sugar level (fasting and after meals) within a normal range. This is done with a combination of insulin therapy, diet, and exercise. When your blood sugar levels are not within the ideal range, diabetes can cause the following problems:

In the short-term:

  • High blood sugar (hyperglycemia)
  • Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), which is the result of too much insulin

In the long-term:



Causes of diabetes. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at:
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Updated June 2014. Accessed September 8, 2015.
Diabetes mellitus type 1. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
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Updated August 27, 2015. Accessed September 8, 2015.
Type 1 diabetes. American Diabetes Association website. Available at:
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Accessed September 8, 2015.
Last reviewed September 2015 by Kim A. Carmichael, MD
Last Updated: 9/8/2015


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