An ingrown toenail happens when a portion of the toenail curves into the flesh of the toe. It then imbeds itself in the soft tissue. It can occur on any of the toes. However, it usually occurs on one of the big toes.
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Trauma and improper nail care makes the nail curve and overgrow into the flesh of the toe.
The main risk factor that increases your chances of having ingrown toenails is having family members with ingrown toenails.
Other risk factors include:
Ingrown toenails often do not cause symptoms at first. Eventually, the following symptoms may develop:
In almost all cases, you or your doctor can diagnose an ingrown toenail based on the location and the symptoms.
In rare cases, you may need an x-ray. For example, if your doctor suspects an infection may have spread to the toe bone.
You may be able to treat an ingrown toenail yourself if you catch it early. If the condition gets worse or does not improve, you will need to seek medical care. If you have diabetes, you must seek medical attention for any infection or wound involving your feet or toes.
It may be possible to care for the ingrown toenail. Some of the following may help:
Promptly seek medical care for an ingrown toenail if you have any of the following conditions:
Medical care may be needed if the ingrown toenail does not respond to self-care. This may include:
If you repeatedly get ingrown toenails, or your ingrown toenail is severe, your doctor may:
To help prevent ingrown toenails:
American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society
American Podiatric Medical Association
Calgary Foot Clinic
Canadian Podiatric Medical Association
Ingrown toenails. American Podiatric Medical Association website. Available at: http://www.apma.org/Learn/FootHealth.cfm?ItemNumber=1522. Accessed February 20, 2017.
Ingrown toenails. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: https://familydoctor.org/condition/ingrown-toenails. Updated March 2014. Accessed February 20, 2017.
Zuber T. Ingrown toenail removal. Am Fam Physician. 2002;65(12):2547-2550.
Last reviewed February 2017 by Michael Woods, MD, FAAP Last Updated: 2/20/2017