Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccine
(MMR Vaccine; Measles Vaccine; Mumps Vaccine; Rubella Vaccine)
by Richard Glickman-Simon, MD
What Are Measles, Mumps, and Rubella?
Measles is a viral infection that can cause rash, cough, runny nose, eye irritation, and fever. It can lead to ear infection, pneumonia, seizures, brain damage, and death.
Mumps is a viral infection that can result in fever, headache, muscle pain, loss of appetite, and swollen glands. It can lead to deafness, infection of the brain and spinal cord covering, painful swelling of the testicles or ovaries, and sterility.
Rubella is a viral infection that can can result in a rash, mild fever, or arthritis. Pregnant women who have rubella are at increased risk for miscarriage. Their babies may be born with severe birth defects.
What Is the Measles, Mumps, RubellaVaccine?
The measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine consists of 3 live viruses made in chicken embryo cells. The viruses found in the vaccine have been made harmless during the manufacturing process.
The vaccine is given under the skin.
Who Should Get Vaccinated and When? TOP
All children with few exceptions should receive the vaccine two times:
The vaccine can also be given to infants younger than 12 months who will be traveling internationally. These infants should also get the two routine shots at ages 12-15 months and 4-6 years.
Adults born after 1956 who have not been previously vaccinated may need at least one dose. Talk with your doctor if you were not previously vaccinated.
What Are the Risks Associated With the MMR Vaccine? TOP
The majority of people who get the vaccine do not have any side effects. The most common side effects are a fever and a rash 1-2 weeks after vaccination. Redness and swelling at the injection site may occur. Rare complications include:
Who Should Not Get Vaccinated? TOP
In some cases, the vaccine should be delayed, such as:
Most children and teens should receive their vaccinations on schedule. However, certain groups should not be vaccinated:
What Other Ways Can Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Be Prevented? TOP
If you have the measles, mumps, or rubella, you should be isolated to stop the virus from spreading. For example, children with the should stay home until the virus is over.
What Happens in the Event of an Outbreak? TOP
A case of the measles, mumps, or rubella needs to be reported to public health authorities. If you think you or your child has the measles, mumps, or rubella, call the doctor right away.
Anyone who may have been exposed and has not been fully immunized will need to receive the vaccine.
WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION?
American Academy of Pediatrics
Vaccines & Immunizations
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Measles, mumps, and rubella: vaccine use and strategies for elimination of measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome and control of mumps: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00053391.htm . Published May 22, 1998. Accessed October 8, 2013.
MMR vaccine: What you need to know. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/mmr.pdf . Published April 20, 2012. Accessed October 8, 2013.
1/31/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/ : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0-18 years—United States, 2008. MMWR . 2008;57;Q1-Q4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5701a8.htm . Updated January 10, 2008. Accessed October 10, 2013.
5/27/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/ : Measles—United States, January—May 20, 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 May 20 early online.
Last reviewed June 2013 by Brian Randall, MD
Last Updated: 6/3/2013