Glomerulonephritis is a kidney condition that involves damage to the glomeruli. Glomeruli are the tiny structures within the kidney that filter blood.
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs located in the back just below the rib cage. Each kidney is about the size of a fist. The two kidneys filter blood, catch needed substances and return them to the circulation, and dispose of wastes in the urine. If the kidneys don’t filter properly, wastes build up in the blood.
There are two types of glomerulonephritis:
Causes of glomerulonephritis include:
A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or condition.
Risk factors for glomerulonephritis include:
Glomerulonephritis sometimes causes no symptoms and is discovered during a routine urine test. When present, the symptoms of acute and chronic glomerulonephritis differ from one another.
The symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis may include:
Chronic glomerulonephritis can lead to kidney failure. It may cause these symptoms:
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You may be referred to a doctor (nephrologist) who specializes in kidney disease for further diagnostic testing and treatment .
Tests may include:
Treatment will depend on the cause of glomerulonephritis. For example, control of blood pressure and blood sugar with medications would be important when treating glomerulonephritis related to hypertension and diabetes. In addition, the following steps may be taken to help kidney function or reduce further damage:
If the kidneys are unable to remove sufficient waste from the blood, dialysis may be required. Temporary dialysis may be sufficient for acute glomerulonephritis. If it leads to permanent kidney failure, chronic glomerulonephritis will require long-term dialysis or kidney transplant.
The following steps may decrease your risk of glomerulonephritis:
National Kidney Foundation
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse
BC Health Guide
The Kidney Foundation of Canada
Glomerulonephritis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed . Updated June 1, 2010. Accessed October 18, 2012.
Glomerulonephritis. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: http://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/glomerul.cfm . Accessed October 18, 2012.
Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2005.
Last reviewed October 2012 by Adrienne Carmack, MD
Last Updated: 10/31/2012
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