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Arthroscopy is a surgery done to examine a joint visually. Most of the time, it is done on larger joints, like the knee or shoulder. A special tool called an arthroscope is used. It is an instrument that looks like a long tube with a miniature camera on the end. Repairs or corrections to the joint may be done by using the arthroscope and other tools.
It is used to see, diagnose, and treat problems inside your joint. The procedure is most often performed for the following reasons:
Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely risk free. If you are planning to have an arthroscopy, your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include:
Factors that may increase the risk of complications include:
The type of anesthesia will depend on the joint your doctor is looking at. You may receive one of the following:
The doctor will make tiny incisions in the skin along the joint. Special tools will be inserted through the incisions. The tools include the arthroscope. The picture from the arthroscope will show up on a screen so that the doctor can see the inside of your joint. The doctor will use the images to move around other tools that can cut and repair tissue in your joint.
Once the examination is done, the tools will be removed. The skin may be closed with stitches or clips. The incisions will be covered with a dressing. The fluid or tissue that was removed may be sent to a lab for examination.
Usually less than one hour, but this may be longer if repairs are being done.
Most patients report no pain during the procedure. After the procedure, pain medicines are used to treat pain.
The dressings can sometimes be removed as early as the next morning. When you return home after the procedure, do the following to help ensure a smooth recovery:
It takes 4-6 weeks for the joint to recover. You can probably go back to work or resume daily activities within a few days, as long your doctor approves. A specific activity and rehabilitation program may be suggested. This will help speed your recovery and protect future joint function.
Athletes often return to athletic competition within a few weeks.
Note: Repair of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) by arthroscope may require a recovery time of 4-6 months and a more specialized rehabilitation program.
After arriving home, contact your doctor if any of the following occurs:
In case of an emergency, call for medical help right away.
American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons
The Arthritis Society
Canadian Orthopaedic Association
Arthroscopy Association of North America website. Available at: http://www.aana.org/ . Accessed July 10, 2009.
Lindström D, Azodi O, Wladis A, et al. Effects of a perioperative smoking cessation intervention on postoperative complications: a randomized trial. Ann Surg . 2008;248:739-745.
What is arthroscopy? American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00109 . Updated October 2007. Accessed July 10, 2009.
Yacub J, Rice B, Dillingham T. Nerve injury in patients after hip and knee arthroplasties and knee arthroscopy. Am J PhysMed Rehabil . 2009;88:635-641.
Last reviewed [Under Medical Review] by Lawrence Frisch, MD, MPH
Last Updated: 9/26/2011
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