Pronounced: SIS-toh-SEEL or RECK-toh-SEEL
A cystocele occurs when part of the bladder wall bulges into the vagina. The bulge happens through a defect in the wall between the bladder and vagina.
A rectocele occurs when part of the wall of the rectum bulges into the vagina. The bulge happens through a defect in the wall between the rectum and vagina.
These form because of a problem with the fascia, ligaments, and muscles of the pelvis.
Cystocele and rectocele can cause problems going to the bathroom, urine leakage, or pain during sex. This surgery is done to help relieve these symptoms.
Most often, this type of surgery is not done until all other treatments have been tried. Other treatments may include muscle exercises and the insertion of a pessary device (a supportive ring). If you have tried these treatments and have had no relief, your doctor may suggest surgical repair.
Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely free of risk. If you are planning to have this type of repair, your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include:
Factors that may increase the risk of complications include:
You may be given an antibiotic just before surgery. A bladder catheter will be inserted in the urethra. This will allow urine to drain and decrease pressure on the bladder.
A cut will be made in the skin to expose the involved muscle and tissue. In some cases, the muscles and tissue will be sewn back onto itself. This will make it stronger. In other cases, a mesh-type material will be used to strengthen the tissue. Any tissue that has been weakened by previous surgeries, pregnancies, or age will be removed. Excess vaginal lining will be removed as well.
In some cases, a suspension or elevation procedure may be done. These are special sutures that provide extra support to the bladder.
45 minutes to two or more hours
You will likely experience vaginal discomfort for 1-2 weeks following the surgery. You will be given medicine to help relieve this.
The usual length of stay is 1-2 days. Your doctor may choose to keep you longer if complications arise.
When you return home, do the following to help ensure a smooth recovery:
After you leave the hospital, contact your doctor if any of the following occur:
In case of an emergency, call for medical help right away.
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse
Canadian Urological Association
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
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Cystocele. American Association of Urology Foundation website. Available at: http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=118 . Updated January 2011. Accessed September 14, 2012.
Kobashi KC, Leach GE. Pelvic prolapse. Journal of Urology . 2000;164(6):1879-90.
Pelvic organ prolapse. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us . Updated September 2011. Accessed September 14, 2012.
Sommers MS, Johnson SA, Berry TA. Cystocele; rectocele (book chapter). Diseases & Disorders: A Nursing Therapeutics Manual . 3rd ed. 2007. Available at: http://web.ebscoho... . Accessed September 14, 2012.
Vaginal prolapse surgery. The Royal Women's Hospital website. Available at: http://www.thewomens.org.au/Vaginalprolapsesurgery . Accessed September 14, 2012.
6/2/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us : Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med . 2011;124(2):144-154.e8.
Last reviewed September 2012 by Adrienne Carmack, MD
Last Updated: 9/24/2012
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