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Contusion

(Bruise)

 

Definition

A contusion occurs when blood vessels are damaged or broken after an injury. The raised area of the contusion is the result of blood and fluid leaking from the injured blood vessels into the tissue. You usually see a discolored, purplish area that takes 2-3 weeks to go away.

The condition is a minor problem that usually needs little treatment. Consult with your doctor if the injury does not clear up within a few weeks or if it is severe.

Contusion of Skin

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Causes    TOP

Contusions are caused by minor accidents to your skin, such as falling, bumping into something, or being hit or kicked.

 

Risk Factors    TOP

Almost everyone suffers contusions as a result of routine bumps. People who are at higher risk include:

  • Children and teens
  • People who play contact sports
  • People with blood-clotting problems
  • People taking blood-thinning medicine (such as coumadin, aspirin)
 

Symptoms    TOP

Symptoms of minor contusions usually include:

  • Skin discoloration (usually blue and/or purple, fading to yellow)
  • Pain
  • Swelling
 

Diagnosis    TOP

The skin discoloration, pain, and swelling of a contusion are enough to diagnose the condition.

 

Treatment    TOP

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options to help lessen the swelling and pain include:

  • Applying ice or a cold pack to the injured are (Do not place ice directly on your skin.)
  • Elevating the injured area above the level of your heart
  • Taking pain relieving medicine if recommended by your doctor

You may need addition treatment from your doctor if you:

  • Have a more serious injury (such as fracture)
  • Have broken the skin (may need a tetanus shot or antibiotics)

If you are diagnosed with a contusion, follow your doctor's instructions.

 

Prevention    TOP

Using proper safety equipment can help prevent contusions.

RESOURCES:

American Academy of Family Physicians
http://www.aafp.org

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Canadian Health Network
http://www.ccohs.ca/chn

Health Canada
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

REFERENCES:

Bruise control. University of Rochester, Medical Center website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed July 23, 2012.

Common childhood injuries and poisonings. Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital web site. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed July 23, 2012.

Contusion. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated September 27, 2011. Accessed July 23, 2012.



Last reviewed December 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Last updated 01/15/2014

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