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The liver filters harmful items from the blood and helps your body process food. It also makes important proteins that helps the blood cells clot and fight infections. Failure is the gradual or sudden loss of liver function. It may be:
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Acute liver failure can occur after poisoning. A common cause is the improper use of certain medicine like acetaminophen and herbal supplements. It may also be caused by a virus that attacks the liver.
Chronic liver failure is often due to other medical conditions such as:
Factors that may increase the chances of acute liver failure:
Factors that may increase your risk of chronic liver failure include:
Symptoms of acute liver failure begin quickly. Symptoms of chronic liver failure will worsen over time.
Symptoms of liver failure include:
You will be asked about your symptoms and past health. The doctor may ask about any medicine or supplements you are taking, as well as alcohol use. A physical exam will be done.
Blood and urine tests will help to show how well the liver is working. The tests will look for changes in liver enzymes, the ability for blood to clot, or any toxins.
Images may be needed to check for signs of liver damage. This can be done with:
A liver biopsy may be done to help find a cause for the liver failure and to look for damage. During the biopsy, a sample of liver tissue is removed, It is sent to a lab for examination.
Treatment will depend on the cause of your liver failure and whether it is acute or chronic. Options include:
Medicine that caused liver failure will be stopped and/or changed. You may also be given medicine:
Certain foods are harder on the liver. Some changes may need to be made to the diet. Common changes include limiting animal protein and sodium.
Alcohol is also damaging to the liver and should be avoided. If you problems controlling alcohol or drug use, you may be referred to a rehabilitation center.
A liver transplant may be needed. It is only done if other treatments are not able to control the symptoms of liver failure.
To decrease stress on the liver:
American Liver Foundation
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Acute liver failure. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T900055/Acute-liver-failure. Updated October 20, 2017. Accessed April 3, 2018.
Acute liver failure. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/hepatic-and-biliary-disorders/approach-to-the-patient-with-liver-disease/acute-liver-failure. Updated January 2018. Accessed April 3, 2018.
Liver failure. Patient website. Available at: https://patient.info/doctor/liver-failure. Updated March 12, 2014. Accessed April 3, 2018.
Last reviewed February 2019 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Daniel A. Ostrovsky, MD Last Updated: 2/12/2019