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The mastoid bone is located behind the ear. Mastoiditis is swelling or infection of this bone. Over time, this can cause the bone tissue to break down.
The mastoid bone is like a sinus and has many small air pockets in its structure. It connects to the middle ear.
Mastoiditis is most often caused by a bacterial infection that has entered these air spaces.
These bacteria often come from a long lasting middle ear infection.
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Mastoiditis is more common in young children. It rarely occurs in adults. Factors that may increase your risk of mastoiditis include:
Mastoiditis may cause:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your doctor may suspect mastoiditis based on your recent history of an ear infection and the physical exam.
A CT scan may be done to look for fluid around the mastoid.
Any fluid discharge from your ear may also be tested to look for the specific cause of the infection.
Treatment options include:
Antibiotics will be given to help fight the bacterial infection. This is usually done by IV followed by medications taken by mouth.
Over-the-counter medications may also be advised to relieve pain and swelling.
Surgery may be needed to treat mastoiditis that does not respond to medication. This can be done with:
Mastoiditis is most often caused by an untreated or lasting middle ear infection. If you suspect you have an ear infection, see your doctor. Follow your doctor’s treatment advice.
American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Acute mastoiditis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116609/Acute-mastoiditis. Updated December 7, 2016. Accessed September 1, 2017.
Mastoiditis. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/ear-nose-and-throat-disorders/middle-ear-and-tympanic-membrane-disorders/mastoiditis. Updated December 2015. Accessed September 1, 2017.
Mastoiditis. NHS Choices website. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/mastoiditis/Pages/Introduction.aspx. Updated January 13, 2017. Accessed September 1, 2017.
Mastoiditis. Patient website. Available at: http://patient.info/doctor/mastoiditis. Updated August 17, 2015. Accessed September 1, 2017.
Last reviewed September 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board James Cornell, MD Last Updated: 9/3/2015