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The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. It is made of a left and a right section. The left side of the brain is in charge of the right side of the body. In most people, it is also controls the ability to speak, or use language.
A left brain stroke happens when the blood supply to the left side of the brain is interrupted. Blood brings oxygen and nutrients to brain tissue. When blood flow is stopped, the brain tissue quickly dies.
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An ischemic stroke is caused by a blockage of blood flow, which may be due to:
A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by a burst blood vessel. Blood spills out of the broken blood vessel and pools in the brain. This interrupts the flow of blood and causes a build up of pressure on the brain.
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Certain factors increase your risk of stroke but can not be changed, such as:
Other factors that may increase your risk can be changed, such as:
Certain medical condition that can increase your risk of stroke. Management or prevention of these conditions can significantly decrease your risk. Medical conditions include:
Risk factors specific to women include:
Symptoms occur suddenly. Exact symptoms will depend on the part of the brain affected. Rapid treatment is important to decrease the amount of brain damage. Brain tissue without blood flow dies quickly.
Call for emergency medical help right away if you notice any of the following:
Longer-lasting effects of the stroke may include problems with:
You will be asked about your symptoms and past health. A physical exam will be done to look for muscle weakness and movement difficulty. Vision and speech will also be checked.
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:
Blood tests can also help determine if there is a bleeding problem.
Immediate treatment is needed to:
Oxygen therapy may be needed.
For an ischemic stroke, medication may be given to:
For a hemorrhagic stroke, the doctor may give medication to:
For an ischemic stroke, procedures may be done to:
For a hemorrhagic stroke, the doctor may:
A rehabilitation program focuses on:
Many of the risk factors for stroke can be changed. Lifestyle changes that can help reduce your chance of getting a stroke include:
American Heart Association
National Stroke Association
Heart and Stroke Foundation
Cassella CR, Jagoda A. Ischemic stroke: advances in diagnosis and management. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2017;35(4):911-930.
Furie KL, Kasner SE, Adams RJ, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2011;42(1):227-276.
Hemorrhagic stroke. National Stroke Association website. Available at: http://www.stroke.org/understand-stroke/what-stroke/hemorrhagic-stroke. Accessed November 8, 2018.
Hemorrhagic strokes (bleeds). American Stroke Association website. Available at: http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/AboutStroke/TypesofStroke/HemorrhagicBleeds/Hemorrhagic-Strokes-Bleeds_UCM_310940_Article.jsp#.Vk3h_k2FPIU. Updated April 26, 2017. Accessed November 8, 2018.
Intracerebral hemorrhage. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115590/Intracerebral-hemorrhage. Updated November 28, 2018. Accessed December 11, 2018.
Ischemic strokes (clots). American Stroke Association website. Available at: http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/AboutStroke/TypesofStroke/IschemicClots/Ischemic-Strokes-Clots_UCM_310939_Article.jsp#.Vk3ipE2FPIU. Updated April 26, 2017. Accessed November 8, 2018.
Long-term management of stroke. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T900125/Long-term-management-of-stroke. Updated June 4, 2018. Accessed December 11, 2018.
Neuroimaging for acute stroke. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T474350/Neuroimaging-for-acute-stroke. Updated April 13, 2018. Accessed December 11, 2018.
Raychev R, Saver JL. Mechanical thrombectomy devices for treatment of stroke. Neurol Clin Practice. 2012;2(3):231-235.
Stroke (acute management). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T143427/Stroke-acute-management. Updated November 27, 2018. Accessed December 11, 2018.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116453/Subarachnoid-hemorrhage. Updated June 6, 2018. Accessed December 11, 2018.
2/7/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillancehttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T566761/Prevention-of-stroke: Bushnell C, McCollough LD, Awad IA, et al. Guideline for the prevention of stroke in women. Available at: http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/early/2014/02/06/01.str.0000442009.06663.48. Accessed November 18, 2015.
6/2/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillancehttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T580145/Stroke-rehabilitation: Myint PK, Cleark AB, Kwok CS, et al. Bone mineral density and incidence of stroke: European prospective investigation into cancer-Norfolk population-based study, systemic review, and meta-analysis. Stroke. 2014;45(2):373-382.
6/2/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillancehttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T361037/Risk-factors-for-stroke-or-transient-ischemic-attack: Imfeld P, Bodmer M,Schuerch M, Jick SS, Meier CR. Risk of incident stroke in patients with Alzheimer disease or vascular dementia. Neurology. 2013;81(10):910-919.
8/11/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillancehttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T184935/Cardiovascular-disease-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea: Molnar MZ, Mucsi I, Novak M, et al. Association of incident obstructive sleep apnoea with outcomes in a large cohort of US veterans. Thorax. 2015;70(9):888-895.
1/18/2017 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillancehttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113766/Coronary-artery-disease-possible-risk-factors: Emdin CA, Odutayo A, Wong CX, Tran J, Hsiao AJ, Hunn BH. Meta-analysis of anxiety as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol. 2016;118(4):511-519.
Last reviewed November 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Rimas Lukas, MD Last Updated: 12/10/2018