Hematuria is blood in the urine. Normally, urine does not contain any blood.
There are 2 kinds of hematuria:
- Microscopic hematuria—Urine contains a small amount of blood, which is not visible to the naked eye
- Gross hematuria—Urine is visibly discolored by blood, appearing red or tea-colored
In some cases, the cause of hematuria is never found. The list of known causes is lengthy. Some more common causes include:
- Injury to the abdomen, pelvis, or internal organs of the urinary tract
- Vigorous exercise—resolves with rest
- Urinary tract infection or kidney infection
- Cancer of the prostate, kidney, or bladder
- Kidney disease
- Kidney stones
- Bleeding disorders such as hemophilia
- Certain congenital diseases such as polycystic kidneys
- Radiation of the pelvis for cancer treatment
- Certain medications
Risk Factors ^
Factors that may increase your risk of hematuria include:
- Medications such as certain antibiotics and pain medications
- Family history of kidney problems
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In some cases, there may not be additional symptoms.
But, if you have an underlying condition, you may have other symptoms. For example, kidney stones can cause blood in the urine, along with pain in the side, abdomen, or groin.
When Should I Call My Doctor?
Call your doctor any time you notice blood in your urine.
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You may be referred to a nephrologist who specializes in kidney disease or a urologist who specializes in the urinary system.
Your doctor may need to test your bodily fluids. This can be done with:
- Urine tests
- Blood tests
Your doctor may need to view your bodily structures. This can be done with:
Treatment will depend on the cause of hematuria. Some causes of hematuria require no treatment or will resolve on their own. Other causes will respond to medication. For example, treating a urinary tract infection with antibiotics will stop the hematuria. Still, other causes may require surgery, such as the removal of a tumor or treatment for prostate cancer.
Treating the underlying condition that causes hematuria may help prevent it from occurring.
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
National Kidney Foundation
The Kidney Foundation of Canada
Gross hematuria—approach to the adult. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T909566/Gross-hematuria-approach-to-the-adult. Updated June 27, 2016. Accessed September 27, 2016.
Hematuria in children. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: http://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/hematuria.cfm. Accessed August 31, 2015.
Hematuria in children. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T576483/Hematuria-in-children. Updated July 22, 2013. Accessed August 31, 2015.
Microhematuria—approach to the adult. EBSCO DynaMed Plus websithttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T909568/Microhematuria-approach-to-the-adult. Updated June 27, 2016. Accessed September 27, 2016.
Microscopic hematuria. Am Fam Physician. 1999 Sep 15;60(4):1154. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/990915ap/990915b.html. Accessed August 31, 2015.
Urination problems. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/health-tools/search-by-symptom/urination-problems.html. Accessed August 31, 2015.
Last reviewed August 2015 by Adrienne Carmack, MD Last Updated: 9/3/2014